At Kremsmiinster, Zolss (42) found dissipation vary with the absolute height of the barometer, a± having a mean value of 1.36 when pressure was below the normal, as against 1.20 on days when pressure was above the normal.
Also, whilst the mere absolute height of the barometer seemed of little, if any, importance, he obtained larger values of A with a falling than with a rising barometer.
In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer for example, an allowance must be made.
He invented the wheel barometer, discussed the application of barometrical indications to meteorological forecasting, suggested a system of optical telegraphy, anticipated E.F.F.
Simple examples of the time-relation are - the number of scholars present in a class, the height of the barometer, and the reading of the thermometer, on successive days.
The invention of the barometer and Torricelli's explanation of the vacuity above the mercury column placed before the members of the Florentine academy a ready method of obtaining vacua; for to exhaust a vessel it was only necessary to join, by means of a tube provided with stopcocks, the vessel to a barometer tube, fill the compound vessel with mercury and then to invert it in a basin containing this liquid, whereupon the mercury column fell, leaving a Torricellian vacuum in the vessel, which could be removed after shutting off the stop-cocks.
A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c which is a few inches longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B.
If the vertical tube, measuring from the point where the branch comes in, is a few inches greater than the height of the barometer, and the glass and mercury are perfectly clean, the apparatus slowly but surely produces an almost absolute vacuum.
(I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.
Thus water being about Boo times denser than air and mercury 13.6 times denser than water, k/h = 6,/p = 800 X 13.6 = Io,880; (2) and with an average barometer height of 30 in.
(17) For sea water, A is about 25,000 atmospheres, and k is then 25,000 times the height of the water barometer, about 250,000 metres, so that in an ocean 10 kilometres deep the level is lowered about 200 metres by the compressibility of the water; and the density at the bottom is increased 4%.
This method was developed by Hofmann in 1868, who replaced the short tube of Gay-Lussac by an ordinary barometer tube, thus effecting the volatilization in a Torricellian vacuum.
6) consists of a barometer tube, containing mercury and standing in a bath of the same metal, surrounded by a vapour jacket.
The substance is weighed into a small stoppered bottle, which is then placed beneath the mouth of the barometer tube.
Thorpe employed a barometer tube 96 cm.
The calculation is effected by the following formulae: - _ 760w(I +0.0036651) D - o oo12934XVXB ' _ h hl h2 B +0.000181, (1 +o 00018t 2 I +0.000'8/ +s) in which w = weight of substance taken; = temperature of vapour jacket; V = volume of vapour at t; h= height of barometer reduced to 0 0; 1 1 = temperature of air; h, =height of mercury column below vapour jacket; 1 2 = temperature of mercury column not heated by vapour; h 2 =height of mercury column within vapour jacket; s= vapour tension of mercury at 1°.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
In the monsoon region, where the barometer rises o 38 in.
Reference should be made to the articles Barometer, Climate and Meteorology for the measurement and variation of the pressure of the atmosphere, and the discussion of other properties.
The orifice which is usually placed to the ear was enlarged and closed by a corrugated plate like that of an aneroid barometer, and the motion of this plate was indicated by means of a mirror which had one edge fixed, while the other was attached to a style fixed to the centre of the plate.
In the long range high angle fire the shot ascends to such a height that the correction for the tenuity of the air becomes important, and the curvature 4)-8 of an arc should be so chosen that 4)y 0, the height ascended, should be limited to about moo ft., equivalent to a fall of I inch in the barometer or 3% diminution in the tenuity factor T.
In., or 80 lb of distilled water, determined at 62° F., with the barometer at 30 in.
In., which contain each 252.724 grains of water in a vacuum at 62°, or 252.458 grains of water weighed with brass weights in air of 62° with the barometer at 30 in.
Taking the range of the barometer in Great Britain from 28 to 31 in., giving a difference of 3 in.
It may be compared directly with that of the pure solvent, as the vapourpressure of a pure liquid is determined, by placing solvent and solution respectively above the mercury in two barometer tubes, and comparing the depressions of the mercury with the height of a dry barometer at the same temperature.
" Interest," he says in general, " is the barometer of the state, and its lowness an almost infallible sign of prosperity," arising, as it does, from increased trade, frugality in the merchant class, and the consequent rise of new lenders: low interest and low profits mutually forward each other.
In 1647 he published his Nouvelles experiences sur le vide, and in the next year the famous experiment with the barometer on the Puy de Dome was carried out for him by his brother-in-law Perier, and repeated on a smaller scale by himself at Paris, to which place by the end of 1647 he and his sister Jacqueline had removed, to be followed shortly by their father.
The idea of the pressure of the air and the invention of the instrument for measuring it were both new when he made his famous experiment, showing that the height of the mercury column in a barometer decreases when it is carried upwards through the atmosphere.
They are preceded by a rapid fall of the barometer for about a day, until a gradient from south to north is formed, then the wind commences to blow, at first gently, from the south-east; rapidly increasing in violence, it shifts through south to south-west, finally dropping about sunset.
The relative lowering of the vapour-pressure can be easily measured by Dalton's method of the barometer tube for solvents such as ether, which have a sufficient vapour-pressure at ordinary temperatures.
Farr used to call the latter the barometer of the former.
The first volume of the Histoire et memoires de l'Academie (1733) contains many original papers by him upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids, the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.
The regular variations in pressure of the air indicated by the barometer and the annual and diurnal oscillations are as well marked in the Himalaya as elsewhere, but the amount of vapour held in suspension diminishes so rapidly with the altitude that not more than one-sixth (sometimes only one-tenth) of that observed at the foot of the mountains is found at the greatest heights.
Sir Isaac Newton devoted the 31st query in the last edition of his Opticks to molecular forces, and instanced several examples of the cohesion of liquids, such as the suspension of mercury in a barometer tube at more than double the height at which it usually stands.