During a long and active life, he played many parts: professor of mathematics at the Elphinstone college (1854) founder of the Rast Goftar newspaper; partner in a Parsi business firm in London (1855); prime minister of Baroda (1874); member of the Bombay legislative council (1885); M.P. for Central Finsbury (1892-1895), being the first Indian to be elected to the House of Commons; three times president of the Indian National Congress.
BEHRAMJI MALABARI (1853-), Indian journalist and social reformer, was born in 1853 at Baroda, the son of a poor Parsi in the employment of the state, who died shortly after his birth.
Damaji Gaekwar descended from the Western Ghats upon the alluvial plains of Gujarat around Baroda; Tukoji Holkar subdued the uplands of Malwa beyond the Vindhya range on the north bank of the Nerbudda; and Mahadji Sindhia obtained possession of large tracts immediately south of Agra and Delhi, marched into Hindustan and became virtually the master of the Mogul emperor himself (see GwAL10R).
SANCHI, a small village in India, at which there is now a railway station on the Bombay-Baroda line.
It has a station on the Bombay and Baroda railway, 309 m.
The District Of Ahmedabad lies at the head of the Gulf of Cambay, between Baroda and Kathiawar.
The district is traversed by the Bombay and Baroda railway, and has two seaports, Dholera and Gogo, the former of which has given its name to a mark of raw cotton in the Liverpool market.
It is, however, an important inlet, being the channel by which the valuable produce of central Gujarat and the British districts of Ahmedabad and Broach is exported; but the railway from Bombay to Baroda and Ahmedabad, near Cambay, has for some time past been attracting the trade to itself.
The Akbar Shah was originally a stone of 116 carats with Arabic inscriptions engraved upon it; after being cut down to 71 carats it was bought by the gaikwar of Baroda for £35,000.
The most famous Brazilian stones are: - The Star of the South, found in 1853, when it weighed 2542 carats and was sold for £40,000; when cut it weighed 125 carats and was bought by the gaikwar of Baroda for £80,000.
In the early days of railway enterprise the agency of private companies guaranteed by the state was exclusively employed, and nearly all the great trunk lines were made under this system, but the leases of the last three of these lines, the Great Indian Peninsula, the Bombay Baroda and Central India, and the Madras companies, fell in respectively in 'goo, 1905 and 1907.
During the time of his administration a famine in Lower Bengal in 1874 was successfully obviated by government relief and public works, though at an enormous cost; the gaekwar of Baroda was dethroned in 1875 for misgovernment and disloyalty, while his dominions were continued to a nominated child of the family; and the prince of Wales (Edward VII.) visited the country in the cold season of 1875-1876.
In 1901 the total number of Parsees in all India was 94,000, of whom all but 7000 were found in the Bombay presidency and the adjoining state of Baroda, the rest being widely scattered as traders in the large towns.
Having entered on his missionary labours at Ahmadabad, and afterwards removed to Jetalpur, where he had a meeting with Bishop Heber, he subsequently settled at the village of Wartal, to the north-west of Baroda, and erected a temple to LakshmiNarayana, which, with another at Ahmadabad, forms the two chief centres of the sect, each being presided over by a Maharaja.
The city is served by five different railways, the East Indian, the Oudh & Rohilkhand, the Rajputana-Malwa & Bombay-Baroda, the Southern Punjab, and the North-Western, and occupies a central position, being 940 m.
It is also produced in the native state of Baroda, and in the small British territory of Ajmer Merwara.
GAEKWAR, or GuICOwAR, the family name of the Mahratta rulers of Baroda in western India, which has been converted by the English into a dynastic title.
In this chain of lovely upland lakes, some fresh, some brackish, some completely closed, others connected by short channels, the chief links in their order from north to south are: - Zwai, communicating southwards with Hara and Lamina, all in the Arusi Galla territory; then Abai with an outlet to a smaller tarn in the romantic Baroda and Gamo districts, skirted on the west sides by grassy slopes and wooded ranges from 6000 to nearly 9000 ft.
Within these limits lie the Portuguese settlements of Diu, Damaun and Goa, and the native state of Baroda which has direct relations with the government of India; while politically Bombay includes the settlement of Aden.
The northern or Gujarat group includes the territories of the gaekwar of Baroda, with the smaller states which form the administrative divisions of Cutch, Paianpur, Rewa Kantha, and Mahi Kantha.
Many of the houses in Ahmedabad are covered with elaborate wood-carving, and excellent examples exist in Broach, Baroda, Surat, Nasik and Yeola.
The other chief lines are the Great Indian Peninsula, Indian Midland, Bombay, Baroda & Central India, RajputanaMalwa & Southern Mahratta systems. In 1905 the total length of railway under the Bombay government open for traffic was 7980 m.
Baroda and the Kathiawar states employ their own inspectors.
A few districts in Gujarat almost entirely escaped; but the mortality was very heavy in Satara, Thana, Surat, Poona, Kolaba, and in the native states of Cutch, Baroda, Kolhapur and Palanpur.
BARODA, a native state of India, within the Gujarat province of Bombay, but in direct relations with the governor-general.
Three of these divisions - Kadi, Baroda and Nausari - are in Gujarat proper; the fourth, Amreli with Okhamandal, is in the peninsula of Kathiawar.
The princes of Baroda were one of the chief branches of the Mahratta confederacy, which in the 18th century spread devastation and terror over India.
Three years later these and various other engagements were consolidated into a systematic plan for the administration of the Baroda territory, under a prince with a revenue of three-quarters of a million sterling, perfectly independent in all internal matters, but practically kept on his throne by subsidiary British troops.
Portions of the state are crossed by the Bombay & Baroda and the Rajputana railways.
The city of Baroda is situated on the river Viswamitri, a station on the Bombay & Baroda railway, 245 m.
See Baroda Gazetteer, 1908.