The principal crops are potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and barley are grown in the more fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also cultivated.
Aube is an agricultural department; more than one-third of its surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube.
The seedtime, begun in October, extends, for wheat and some other white crops, through November and December; and barley continues to be sown until about the middle of February.
Though much land previously devoted to grain culture has been planted with vines, the area under wheat, barley, beans and maize is still considerable.
The town was hardly rebuilt when it was again destroyed, this time by the Mongols (April 1221) and so effectually that, completely levelled to the ground, it was turned into a vast barley field.
Other products are tobacco, olives, castor-oil, peanuts, canary-seed, barley, rye, fruit and vegetables.
Oats and barley are generally cultivated, the former more especially in the Parisian region, the latter in Mayenne and one or two of the neighboring departments.
The chief agricultural products are barley, oats, wheat, and in the north-east flax is also grown, and exported to South Holland and Belgium.
The crops chiefly cultivated were wheat, millet, barley, beans and lentils; to which it is supposed, on grounds not improbable, may be added rice and cotton.
A similar comparison for the several sections of Great Britain, as set forth in Table VI., shows that to England belong about 95% of the wheat area, over 80% of the barley area, over 60% of the oats area, and over 70% of the potato area, and these proportions do not vary much from year to year.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
The requirements of barley within the soil, and its susceptibility to the external influences of season, are very similar to those of its near ally, wheat.
In the British Isles wheat is, as a rule, sown in the autumn on a heavier soil, and has four or five months in which to distribute its roots, and so it gets possession of a wide range of soil and subsoil before barley is sown in the spring.
The commodities which the United Kingdom principally takes are wheat, wool, barley, eggs, oats and flax.
Her name has been explained as (I) "grain-mother," from 8na1, the Cretan form of "ECai, " barley," or (2) " earth-mother," or rather " mother earth," 86, being regarded as the Doric form of AI).
Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries.
The corn harvest naturally follows: rye and wheat were usually shorn, and barley and oats cut with the scythe.
The grout, which he mentions as " coming over to us in Holland ships," about which he desires information, was probably the same as shelled barley; and mills for manufacturing it were introduced into Scotland from Holland towards the beginning of the 18th century.
The ground in the valleys and plains bear very good corn, but especially bears barley or bigge, and oats, but rarely wheat and rye."
One of wheat, one of barley, one of pease and one of oats, so that the wheat is sowd after the pease, the barley after the wheat and the oats after the barley.
At the beginning of the period the aggregate area under wheat, barley and oats was nearly 102 million acres; at the close it did not amount to 8 million acres.
This, however, was not the case, for a fairly uniform decrease in the barley area was accompanied by somewhat irregular fluctuations in the acreage of oats.
In only one year, 1878, did the annual average price of English barley touch 40s.
The highest and lowest areas of wheat, barley and oats in the United Kingdom during the period 1875-1905 were the following: Wheat.
Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.
The comparative insignificance of Ireland in the case of the wheat and barley crops, represented by 2 and 8% respectively, receives some compensation when oats and potatoes are considered, about one-fourth of the area of the former and more than half that of the latter being claimed by Ireland.
Wheat 26ï¿½08 bushels, barley 2 9.3 o bushels, oats 38.14 bushels, beans 19.61 bushels, rotation hay 23.55 cwt., permanent hay 20.41 cwt.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
16; presages recovery or death of patients); (4) the pelican (recalls its young to life by its own blood); (5) the owl (or nyktikorax; loves darkness and solitude); (6) the eagle (renews its youth by sunlight and bathing in a fountain); (7) the phoenix (revives from fire); (8) the hoopoe (redeems its parents from the ills of old age); (9) the wild ass (suffers no male besides itself); (1 o) the viper (born at the cost of both its parents' death); (I I) the serpent (sheds its skin; puts aside its venom before drinking; is afraid of man in a state of nudity; hides its head and abandons the rest of its body); (12) the ant (orderly and laborious; prevents stored grain from germinating; distinguishes wheat from barley on the stalk); (13) the sirens and onocentaurs (Isa.
According to early methods of cropping, which were destined to prevail for centuries, wheat, the chief article of food, was sown in one autumn, reaped the next August; the following spring, oats or barley were sown, and the year following the harvest was a period of fallow.
"They used to role their barley grounde 2 This process of enclosure must be distinguished from that of enclosing the arable common fields which, though advocated by Fitzherbert in a passage quoted below proceeded slowly till the 18th century.
These prices are per imperial quarter, - that is, 480 lb of wheat, 400 lb of barley and 312 lb of oats, representing 60 lb, 50 lb and 39 lb per bushel respectively.
The produce of barley, like that of oats, is less irregular than that of wheat, the extremes for barley being 80, 794,000 bushels (1890) and 62,453,000 bushels (1904), and those for oats 190,863,000 bushels (1894) and 161,17 5,000 bushels (1901).
Although enormous single crops of mangels [[Table X]].--Decennial Average Yields in Great Britain of Wheat, Barley and Oats-Bushels per acre.