Colonel Arimondi, commander of the colonial forces in the absence of the military governor, General Baratieri, attacked and routed a dervish force 10,000 strong on the 21st of December.
General Baratieri, upon returning to the colony, decided to execute a coup de main against the dervish base at Kassala, both in order to relieve pressure from that quarter and to preclude a combined Abyssiefian and clcrvish attack upon the colony at the end of 1894.
Concentrating a little army of 2600 men, Baratieri surprised and captured Kassala on.
Mangashh made no reply, and Baratieri crossing the Mareb advanced to Adowa, but four days later was obliged to return northwards.
Mangash thereupon took the offensive and attempted to occupy the village of Coatit in Okul-Kusai, but was forestalled and defeated by Baratieri on the 13th of January 1895.
Hurriedly retreating to Senaf, hard pressed by the Italians, who shelled Senaf on the evening of the 15th of January, Mangashh was obliged to abandon his camp and provisions to Baratieri, who also secured a quantity of correspondence establishing the complicity of Menelek and Mangash in the revolt of Bath-Agos.
The comparatively facile success achieved by Baratieri against Mangash seems to have led him to undervalue his enemy, and to forget that Menelek, negus and king conques~
After obtaining the establishment of an apostolic prefecture in Eritrea under the charge of Italian Franciscans, Baratieri expelled from the colony the French Lazarist missionaries for their alleged complicity in the Bath-Agos insurrection; and in March 1895 undertook the conquest of Tigr.
Certainly Baratieri madi no adequate preparations to repel an Abyssinian attempt t~ reconquer the province.
On returning to Eritrea, Baratieri mobilized his nativ reserves and pushed forward columns under Major Toselli am General Arimondi as far south as Amba Alagi.
Repeated attempts to capture the fort having failed, Menelek and Makonnen opened negotiations with Baratieri for its capitulation, and on the 21st of January the garrison, under Major Galliano, who had heroically defended the position, were permitted to march out with the honors of war.
Meanwhile Baratieri received reinforcements from Italy, but remained undecided as to the best plan of campaign.
For a moment Baratieri thought of retreat, especially as the hope of creating a diversion from Zaila towards Harrar had failed in consequence of the British refusal to permit the landing of an Italian force without the consent of France.
The defection of a number of native allies (who, however, were attacked and defeated by Colonel Stevani on the I 8th of February) rendered the Italian position still more precarious; but Baratieri, unable to make up his mind, continued to mancruvre in the hope of drawing an Abyssinian attack.
On the 25th of February Crispi telegraphed to Baratieri, denouncing his operations as military phthisis, and urging him to decide upon some strategic plan.
Baratieri, anxious probably to obtain some success before the arrival of Baldissera, and alarmed by the rapid diminution of his stores, which precluded further immobility, called a council of war (29th of February) and obtained the approval of the divisional commanders for a plan of attack.
Baratieri vainly attempted to push forward the reserve, but the Italians were already overwhelmed, and the battleor rather, series of distinct engagementsended in a general rout.
Baratieri, after a futile attempt to direct the retreat, fled in haste and reached Adi-Caj before the debris of his army.
The first act of the new cabinet was to confirm instructions given by its predecessor to General Baldissera (who had succeeded General Baratieri on the 2nd of March) to treat for peace with Menelek if he thought desirable.
Though averse from the policy of unlimited colonial expansion, he provided by a loan for the cost of the Abyssinian War in which the tactics of General Baratieri had involved the Crispi cabinet, but fell with Crispi after the disaster at Adowa (March 5896).
Kassala was captured from the dervishes by an Italian force under Colonel Baratieri on the 17th of July 1894 and by the Italians was handed over on Christmas day 1897 to Egypt.
Ahmed Alis force was completely routed and himself killed, and in the following July Colonel Baratieri, with 2500 men, made a fine forced march from Agordat, surprised and captured Kassala on the I7th of that month, and continued to hold it for three years and a half.
(Berlin, 1904); Luigi Chiala, La Spedizione di Massana(Turin,1888); Abyssinian Green Books published at intervals in 1895 and 1896, covering the period from 1870 to the end of the ItaloAbyssinian War; Vico Mantegazza, La Guerra in Africa (Florence, 1896); General Baratieri, Memorie d'Africa (Rome, 1898); C. de la Jonquiere, Les Italiens en Erythrêe (Paris, 1897); G.
A fine action by Colonel Arimondi gained Agordat for Italy (21st December 1893), and a brilliant march by Colonel Baratieri resulted in the acquisition of Kassala (1 7 th July 1894).
On his return Baratieri found that Mangasha was intriguing with the dervishes, and had actually crossed the frontier with a large army.
At Koatit and Senafe (13th to 15th January 1895) Mangasha was met and heavily defeated by Baratieri, who occupied Adrigat in March.
Reinforcements of many thousands were meanwhile arriving at Massawa, and in February Baratieri took the field at the head of over 13,000 men.
Here Baratieri attacked him on the 1st of March, but the difficulties of the country were great, and one of the four Italian brigades had pushed too far forward.