In cases of imminent death a layman or a woman could baptize, and in the case of new-born children it is often necessary.
They therefore elect elders, who expound the Scriptures, baptize and hear confessions.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
Therefore they baptize no one until he is thirty years of age.
In conditional baptism the Latins, since about the year 1227, use the formula, " If thou art not baptized, then do I baptize thee," &c. The Latins further insist on a strict observance of the traditional matter and form.
It is, he says, the " authority of the church " which has constituted the difference between the governing body and the laity, and in an emergency a layman may baptize and celebrate (Exhort.
The fact is that the Montanists represented the conservatism of their day, and even now the Roman Church admits the right of laymen to baptize when a priest cannot be had.
For according to the Pontifical, the episcopate is the " summum sacerdotium "; the bishop in consecration receives " the sacerdotal grace "; it is " his office to consecrate, ordain, offer, baptize, confirm."
In penance, of the formula " I absolve thee "; in the Eucharist, of the words " This is my body " and " This is the cup of my blood " or " This is my blood "; in confirmation, of the words " I sign thee with sign of the cross and confirm thee with chrism of salvation in name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit "; in baptism, of the words " I baptize thee in the name of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (or among the Greeks " N.
TheDidache, as we now have in the Greek, falls into two marked divisions: (a) a book of moral precepts, opening with the words, "There are two ways"; (b) a manual of church ordinances, linked on to the foregoing by the words, "Having first said all these things, baptize, &c."
It was necessary to make them large, because in the early Church it was customary for the bishop to baptize all the catechumens in his diocese (and so baptisteries are commonly found attached to the cathedral and not to the parish churches), and also because the rite was performed only thrice in the year.
From about the beginning of the 12th century, when it became usual to baptize infants soon after their birth instead of at stated times (Easter and Pentecost), the ceremony of scrutiny was incorporated with that of the actual baptism.
(d) A fourth controversy arose out of the restrictive renderings of the term "baptize" and its cognate terms, adopted by William Carey and his colleagues in their famous "Serampore Versions," towards publishing which the society had contributed up to 1830 nearly £30,000.
He had written to the Waldenses that it is better not to baptize at all than to baptize little children; now he was cautious, would not condemn the new prophecy off-hand; but advised Melanchthon to treat them gently and to prove their spirits, less they be of God.
On the other hand, the appearance of the risen Christ to the women may have been taken from the lost pages of St Mark, being the sequel to the narrative which is broken off abruptly in this Gospel: and it is not improbable that St Mark's Gospel was the source of the great commission to preach and baptize with which St Matthew closes, though the wording of it has probably been modified in accordance with a settled tradition.
The main duties of the parish priest are to offer the sacrifice of the mass (q.v.), to hear confessions, to preach, to baptize and to administer extreme unction to the dying.
Their refusal, however, to baptize infants, and the formation of a separate church as the outcome of this refusal, brought upon them the condemnation of Zwingli, and a number of them were banished.
The modern Thonraki baptize in rivers, and in the 11th century when Gregory asked them why they did not allow themselves to be baptized, they answered: "Ye do not understand the mystery of baptism; we are in no hurry to be baptized, for baptism is death."
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
In the first place, there were in early days far more bishops in proportion to the number of believers than is the custom now; and, secondly, it was the rule (except in cases of emergency) to baptize only in the season from Easter to Pentecost, and the bishop was always present and laid his hands on the newly baptized.
It insists on the erection of fonts; on distinction of grades among the ordained clergy; on not postponing baptism too long; on bishops and priests alone, and not deacons, being allowed to baptize and lay hands on or confirm the baptized; on avoiding communion with Arians; on the use of unleavened bread in the Sacrament, &c. We learn from it that the bishop of Basen and Bagrevand was an Arian at that time.
The right to baptize and celebrate the communion was delegated to them by the bishop.5 In the fourth stage we find the presbyters, like the bishops, becoming endowed with special sacerdotal powers and functions.
When Nicodemus objected that this was to demand a physical impossibility, he was answered that the new birth was " of water and spirit "- words which doubtless contained a reference to the mission of the Baptist and to his prophecy of One who should baptize with the Holy Spirit.
Now concerning baptism, thus baptize ye: having spoken beforehand all these things, baptize into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit; in living water.
But if thou hast not living water, baptize into other water; if thou canst not in cold, in warm.
Viii.) wrote that it is not lawful to baptize or hold an agape (Lord's Supper) without the bishop. So Tertullian (de Bapt.
The formula of Rome is, " I baptize thee in the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit."
There remain two texts in which the injunction to baptize is attributed to Jesus, namely, Mark xvi.
Baptize the soul from wrath, from envy and from hatred; and, lo!