Lingah, with its principal place Bander Lingah and i 1 villages, formerly a part of Laristan, is now included in the "Persian Gulf Ports," a separate administrative division.
To Carmania belonged also the coast, with the islands and harbours of Hormuz and Bander Abbasi.
In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah.
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen subprovinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the "Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran.
BUSHIRE, or Bander Bushire, a town of Persia, on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf, in 28° 59' N., 50° 49' E.
In the first half of the 18th century, when Bushire was an unimportant fishing village, it was selected by Nadir Shah as the southern port of Persia and dockyard of the navy which he aspired to create in the Persian Gulf, and the British commercial factory of the East India Company, established at Gombrun, the modern Bander Abbasi, was transferred to it in 1759.
The plains of Bundelkhand are intersected by three mountain ranges, the Bindhachal, Panna and Bander chains, the highest elevation not exceeding 2000 ft.
Along the shores of the Caspian, particularly in Gilan and Mazandaran, and of the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Shatt el Arab down to Bander Abbasi, the air during a great part of the year contains much moisturedry- and wet-bulb thermometers at times indicating the same temperatureand at nights there are heavy falls of dew.
Isfahan (100,000); Meshed (8o,ooo); Kerman, Resht, Shiraz (6o,ooo); Barfurush, Kazvin, Yezd (5o,ooo); Hamadan, Kermnshah (40,000); Kashan, Khoi, Urmia (35,000); Birjend, Burujird, Bushire, Dizful, Kum, Senendij (Sinna), Zenjan (25,00o to 30,000); Amol, Ardebil, Ardistan, Astarabad, Abekuh, Barn, Bander, Abbasi, Bander Lingah, Damghan, Dilman, Istahbanat, Jahnim, Khunsar, Kumishah, Kuchan, Marand, Maragha, Nishapur, Sari, Sabzevar, Samnan, Shahrud, Shushter (1o,ooo to 20,000).
Commerce.The principal centres of commerce are Tabriz, Teheran, Resht, Meshed and Yezd; the principal, ports Bander Abbasi, Lingah, Bushire and Muhamrah on the Persian Gulf, and Astara, Enzeli, Meshed i Sar and Bander i Gez on the Caspian.
It is estimated that the four principal ports and the many smaller ones (as Mashur, Hindian, Zaidin, Bander, Dilam, Rig, Kongan, Taheri, Kishm, Hormuz, &c.) possess at least 100 baglahs and several hundred bagarahs, besides a large number of small boats.
The following figures from the commercial statistics published by the Persian Customs Department show the total shipping at the four principal Persian Gulf ports, Bushire, Bander Lingah, Bander Abbasi and Muhamrah during the years 1904-1907.
Bander Lingah 155,720, , Muhamrah..
Bander Lingah being the port where most of the pearls obtained on the Arabian coast of the gulf are brought to and exported from, has more native shipping (all sailing vessels) than the other ports.
Man-i-Bander abbasi = 840, , = 8-52
In the meanwhile the Saduzai tribe revolted at Herat, and declared itself independent in 1717; the Kurds overran the country rous~d Hamadan; the Uzbegs desolated Khorasan; and the Arabs of Muscat seized the island of Bahrein and threatened Bander Abbasi.
In his time the British factory was removed from Bander Abbasi to Bushire.
Its chief provisions, in regard to Persia, are as follows: (I) north of a line drawn from Kasr-iShirin, Isfahan, Yezd and Kakh to the junction of the Russian, Persian and Afghan frontiers Great Britain undertook to seek no political or commercial concession, and to refrain from opposing the acquisition of any such concession by Russia or Russian subjects; (2) Russia gave to Great Britain a like undertaking in respect of the territory south of a line extending from the Afghan frontier to Gazik, Birjend, Kerman and Bander Abbasi; (3) the territory between the lines above-mentioned was to be regarded as a neutral zone in which either country might obtain concessions; (4) all existing concessions in any part of Persia were to be respected; (5) should Persia fail to meet its liabilities in respect of loans contracted, before the signature of the Convention, with the Persian Banque dEscompte and de Prts, or with the Imperial Bank of Persia, Great Britain and Russia reserved the right to assume control over the Persian revenues payable within their respective spheres of influence.
BANDER LINGAH, or Linga, a town of Persia on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and about 300 m.
The annual value of the exports and imports from and into Bander Lingah from 1890 to 1905 averaged about £800,000, but nearly half of that amount is represented by pearls which pass in transit from the fisheries on the Arab coast to Bombay.
Like many other Persian Gulf ports, Bander Lingah was for many generations a hereditary patrimony of the Sheikh of an Arab tribe, in this case the Juvasmi tribe, and it was only in 1898 that the Arabs were expelled from the place by a Persian force.
On the capture of the island of Hormuz (Ormus) in 1622 by the English and Persians, a large portion of its trade was transferred to Bander Abbasi.
In 1852 the Persians expelled the Muscat authorities from Bander Abbasi and its district, but retired when Muscat agreed to pay an increased rent.
By a treaty concluded between Persia and Muscat in 1856 it was stipulated that Bander Abbasi town and district and the islands were to be considered Persian territory and leased to Muscat at an annual rent of 14,000 tomans (£6000).
The treaty was to have been in force for twenty years, but in 1866 the Persians took advantage of the assassination of Seyed Thuweni, the sultan of Muscat, to instal as governor of Bander Abbasi and district a nominee of their own who agreed to pay a rent of 20,000 tomans per annum.
Further difficulties arising between Persia and Muscat, and the ruler of the latter, then in possession of a powerful fleet, threatening to blockade Bander Abbasi, the Persian government solicited the good offices of the British government, and the lease was renewed for another eight years upon payment of 30,000 tomans per annum (then about £12,00o).
Bander Abbasi has a lively trade, exporting much of the produce of central and south-eastern Persia and supplying imports to those districts and Khorasan.
From 1890-1905 the total value of the exports and imports from and into Bander Abbasi averaged about £660,000 per annum, £260,000 (£155,000 British) being for exports, £400,000 (£340,000 British) imports.
Of the 255,000 tons of shipping which in 1905 entered Bander Abbasi 237,000 were British.
When the building of the railway between the Nile and the Red Sea was begun, it was determined to create a port at this harbour - which was renamed Port Sudan (Bander es- Sudan).