TROPICAL REGI0N.This is characterized by the presence of gigantic Monocotyledons, palms, Musaceae and bamboos, and of evergreen polypetalous trees and figs.
Bamboos of the genus Oxytenanthera are indigenous.
There abound "beautifully laid out gardens, public and private, and solidly constructed roads, some of them bordered with bamboos and other delicately-fronded trees, and fringed with the luxuriant growth of semi-tropical vegetation."
The intermediate tract is a region of rich cultivation, dotted with great banyan trees, thickets of bamboos, exquisite palm foliage and mango groves.
Boreale) which should not be confounded with the Brazilian Caesalpinia, palo blanco (Lysiloma candida), the cascalote and divi-divi trees (Caesalpinia Cacalaco and C. coriaria), the "zapote chico " (Achras sapota) from which chicle is extracted, " zapote prieto " (Diospyros ebenaster), wild fig, myrtles, bamboos and many of the types already mentioned in connexion with the sub-tropical zone.
Still farther removed are the bamboos of the tropics, the columnar stems of which reach to the height of forest trees.
In some bamboos they are very numerous from the lower nodes of the erect culms, and pass downwards to the soil, whilst those from the upper nodes shrivel up and form circles of spiny fibres.
In grasses of temperate climates branching is rare at the upper nodes of the culm, but it is characteristic of the bamboos and many tropical grasses.
The ancient name of the town of Belgaum was Venugrama, which is said to be derived from the bamboos that are characteristic of its neighbourhood.
In the eastern forests palms, bamboos, lianas and tree-ferns, as well as species of Dracaena, are found.
In the Spanish plains, however, the young are often produced in nests built in trees, or among tall bamboos in FIG.
In the interior brakes of bamboos are found, many of which spread for miles along the river banks.
The pure Sakai in the interior have a good knowledge of planting rice, tapioca, &c., fashion pretty vessels from bamboos, which they decorate with patterns traced by the aid of fire, make loin-cloths (their only garment) from the bark of the trap and ipoh trees; are very musical, using a rude lute of bamboo, and a noseflute of a very sweet tone, and singing in chorus very melodiously; and altogether have attained in their primitive state to a higher degree of civilization than have the Semang.
The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.
Plantains, tree-ferns, bamboos, several Calami, and other palms, and Pandanus, are abundant at the lower levels.
It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.
Gigantic reeds and grasses occupy the low lands near the banks of the great river; expanses of fertile rice-land come next; a little higher up, dotted with villages encircled by groves of bamboos and fruit trees of great size and beauty, the dark forests succeed, covering the interior table-land and mountains.
It is employed in shipping of all kinds; some of the strongest plants are selected for masts of boats of moderate size, and the masts of larger vessels are sometimes formed by the union of several bamboos built up and joined together.
The species of palm are also reduced to two or three, and bamboos, though abundant, are confined to a few species.
Bamboos grow everywhere along the outer ranges, and rattans to the eastward, and are largely exported for use in the plains.
The general aspect of the district is that of a flat even country, dotted with clusters of bamboos and betelnut trees, and intersected by a perfect network of dark-coloured and sluggish streams. There is not a hill or hillock in the whole district, but it derives a certain picturesque beauty from its wide expanses of cultivation, and the greenness and freshness of the vegetation.
The villages, which are always walled round by groves of bamboos and betel-nut palms, have often a very striking appearance; and Backergunje has many beauties of detail which strike a traveller in passing through the country.
In the interior salt is difficult to get, and sea-water, which is carried inland in hollow bamboos, is used in cooking in place of it.
Cotton is indigenous in the valley of the Blue Nile, and in some districts bamboos are plentiful.
The vegetable products comprise bananas, bread-fruit, yams, plantains, wild cotton, bamboos, sugar-cane, coco-nut and dwarf palms, and several kinds of timber trees.
Farther to the south is the large Jardin d'Essai, containing five avenues of palms, planes, bamboos and magnolias.
The view, often repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see also Not.
Shibuichi inlaid with shakudo used to be the commonest combination of metals in this class of decoration, and the objects usually depicted were bamboos, crows, wild-fowl under the moon, peony sprays and so forth.
Among other trees and shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-palm, the plantain, various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which grows in some parts of Sicily more profusely than anywhere else, and in the desolate region in the south-west yields almost the only vegetable product of importance.
Bamboos are imported to a considerable extent into Europe for the use of basket-makers, and for umbrella and walking-sticks.
The bamboos are a feature of tropical forest vegetation, especially in the monsoon region.
In many bamboos they are long and spreading or drooping and copiously ramified, in others they are reduced to hooked spines.
Grass-culms grow with great rapidity, as is most strikingly seen in bamboos, where a height of over ioo ft.
The chief modifications are the articulation of the deciduous blade on to the sheath, which occurs in all the Bambuseae (except Planotia) and in Spartina stricta; and the interposition of a petiole between the sheath and the blade, as in bamboos, Leptaspis, Pharus, Pariana, Lophatherum and others.
Many of the bamboos have a third, anterior, style.
Some Commelinaceae and Marantaceae approach grasses in foliage; the leaves of Allium, &c., possess a ligule; the habit of some palms reminds one of the bamboos; and Juncaceae and a few Liliaceae possess an inconspicuous scarious perianth.
In the tropical zone large figs abound, Terminalia, Shorea (sal), laurels, many Leguminosae, Bombax, Artocarpus, bamboos and several palms, among which species of Calamus are remarkable, climbing over the largest trees; and this is the western limit of Cycas and Myristica (nutmeg).
In the same district bamboos, ramie-fibre and attar (otto) of roses are cultivated.
Bamboos and palms, with Pandanus and Dracaena, are also abundant.