There is British Baluch Baluchistan par excellence, and there is the rest of Baluchistan which exists in various degrees of independence, but is everywhere subject to British control.
It commands the direct approaches to the Baluch highlands by Sakki Sarwar and Fort Monro.
The town was founded at the close of the 15th century and named after Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan, a Baluch chieftain, who after holding the country for the Langah sultans of Multan had made himself independent.
The population in 1901 was 471,149, the great majority being Baluch Mahommedans.
The geographical boundary between the Pathan and Baluch races in the hills nearly corresponds with the northern limit of the district.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
They are a peaceful and united race, and have been friendly to the British, but at enmity with the Khetrans and the Baluch tribes to the south of their country.
King Suna of Buganda first heard of the outer world of white men in 1850 from a runaway Baluch soldier of Zanzibar.
Within the limits of British territory the Gomal forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, and more or less between the Pathan and Baluch races.
BOLAN PASS, an important pass on the Baluch frontier, connecting Jacobabad and Sibi with Quetta, which has always occupied an important place in the history of British campaigns in Afghanistan.
Since 1877, when the Quetta agency was founded, the freedom of the pass from plundering bands of Baluch marauders (chiefly Marris) has been secured, and it is now as safe as any pass in Scotland.
Finally the Perso-Baluch Commission of 1904-1905 defined its western face.
It leaves some of the most fanatical of the Durani Afghan people on the Baluch side of the frontier in the Toba district, north of the Quetta - Chaman line of railway; and it passes 50 m.
Ashraf tried to escape to Kandahar almost alone, but was murdered by a party of Baluch robbers; and thus, by the genius of Nadir, his native land was delivered from the terrible Afghan invaders.
Baluch, the language of Baluchistan, also very closely akin to New Persian, but especially distinguished from it in that all the old spirants arc changed into explosives, e.g.
Baluch vab (sleep) =Zend hvafna; Baluch hap (slime)=Zend kafa, New Persian kaf; Baluch hapt (seven) = New Persian haft.
The whole of the northern boundary, with the north-eastern corner and the railway which traverses Baluchistan through Quetta up to New Chaman on the Afghan-Baluch frontier, is therefore in one form or other under direct British control.
By 300, primarily the home of the Brahui and the Baluch; but within that block are included almost, every conceivable phase of climate and representatives of half the great races of Asia.
The Baluch Siwaliks afford us strange glimpses into a recent geological past, when the same gigantic mammals roamed along the foot of these wild hills as once inhabited the tangled forests below the Himalaya.
The Baluch character is influenced by its environment as much as by its origin, so that it is impossible to select any one section of the general community as affording a satisfactory sample of popular Baluch idiosyncrasies.
The Arab type of Baluch extends through the whole country at intervals, and includes all the finest and best of Baluch humanity.
Taking the Rind Baluch as the type opposed to the Afridi Pathan, the lialuch is easier to deal with and to control than the Pathan, owing to his tribal organization and his freedom from bigoted Pathan tribes of the Suliman hills are held in check by the occupation of the Zhob valley; whilst the central dominant position at Quetta safeguards the peace and security of Kalat, and of the wildest of the Baluch hills occupied by the Marris and Bugtis, no less than it bars the way to an advance upon India by way of Kandahar.
The Baluch is still essentially a robber and a raider (a trait which is common to all tribes), and the history of Baluchistan is nothing but a story of successful robberies, of lawless rapine and bloodshed, for which plunder and devastation were accounted a worthy and honourable return.
Possibly the ordinary processes of denudation and erosion, acting on those recent deposits which overlie the harder beds of the older series, may have much to say to these climatic changes, and the wanton destruction of forests may have assisted the efforts of nature; but it is difficult to understand the widespread desiccation of large areas of the Baluch highlands, where evidences of Arab irrigation works and of cultivation still attest to a once flourishing agricultural condition, without appealing to more rapidly destructive principles for the change.
The Baluch is less turbulent, less treacherous, less bloodthirsty and less fanatical than the Pathan.
It would be difficult to match the stately dignity and imposing presence of a Baluch chief of the Marri or Bugti clans.
Frank and open in his manners, fairly truthful, faithful to his word, temperate and enduring, and looking upon courage as the highest virtue, the true Baluch of the Derajat is a pleasant man to have dealings with.
He is an expert rider; horse-racing is his national amusement, and the Baluch breed of horses is celebrated throughout northern India.
The relations of the modern Baluch with the government of India were entirely transformed by the life work of Sir Robert Sandeman.
The most important Baluch tribes are the Marris, the Bughtis, the Boledis, the Domkis, the Magassis and the Rinds.
From the conquest of Sind by the British troops under the command of General Sir Charles Napier in 1843 up to 1854 no diplomatic intercourse occurred worthy of note between the British and Baluch states.
" That the Baluch chief was to prevent all plundering on the part of his subjects within or in the neighbourhood of British territory.
Since then the most important change in Baluch administration has been the perpetual lease and transfer of management to British agency of the Nushki district and Niabat, with all rights, jurisdiction and administrative power, in lieu of a perpetual rent of Rs.9000 per annum.
It takes its name from Ismail Khan, a Baluch chief who settled here towards the end of the 15th century, and whose descendants ruled for 300 years.
Chiefly Pathan and Baluch Mahommedans.
Within the district, which is the borderland of Pathan and Baluch tribes, the Pathan element predominating.
To the above numbers may be added io,000 Baluch nomads.
The inhabitants are Seistanis or Parsiwans, Baluch nomads and Afghans.