His mother was a native of the place; his father, a Persian from Balkh, filled the post of tax-collector in the neighbouring town of Harmaitin, under Nall II.
In the 9th century IIivi of Balkh wrote a rationalistic treatise 3 on difficulties in the Bible, which was refuted by Seadiah.
He reported the gradual formation of an anticlinal or ridge extending longitudinally through the great Balkh plain of Afghan Turkestan, which effectually shuts off the northern affluents of that basin from actual junction with the river.
This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
After sustaining a famous siege in his capital Bactra (Balkh), Euthydemus obtained an honourable peace by which the hand of one of Antiochus's daughters was promised to his son Demetrius.
Under the caliphate of Mamun, Saman, a Persian noble of Balkh, who was a close friend of the Arab governor of Khorasan, Asad b.
The headquarters of the horde were at Bamian and at Balkh, and from these points they raided south-east and south-west.
6th of Rabi` I.) at Balkh, in Khorasan, where his family had resided from time immemorial.
Of Balkh, and 30 m.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
From this city as their base the Arabs, under Kotaiba (Qotaiba) ibn Moslim, early in the 8th century brought under subjection Balkh, Bokhara, Ferghana and Kashgaria, and penetrated into China as far as the province of Kan-suh.
1004), at Kubadiyan, near Balkh in Khorasan.
There is a considerable trade in grain; but the commercial prosperity of Karshi is mainly due to its being a meeting-point for the roads from Samarkand, Bokhara, Hissar, Balkh and Maimana, and serves as the market where the Turkomans and Uzbegs dispose of their carpets, knives and firearms. Its coppersmiths turn out excellent work.
Westward of Balkh on the road to Andkhui.
According to tradition, his wife was taken for a time into the harem of Abdallah, brother of Kotaiba the conqueror of Balkh, and became the mother of Khalid b.
736) rebuilt and adorned his native city of Balkh after the rebellion of Harith.
Many colonial Roman coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and silver dirhems, stamped at Samarkand, Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.
Two years later, his father Sabuktagin died in the neighbourhood of Balkh, having declared his second son, Ismail, who was then with him, to be his successor.
As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.
The Ilek Khan, having retreated across the Oxus, returned with reinforcements, and took up a position a few miles from Balkh, where he was signally defeated by Mahmud.
At the close of 1369 Hosain was assassinated and Timur, having been formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital of his dominions.
By the invasion of these hordes several Turkish tribes, the Ghuzz and others, were driven beyond the Oxus, where they killed the Seljuk governor of Balkh, though they professed to be loyal to Sinjar.
BACTRIA (Bactriana), the ancient name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Paropamisus) and the Oxus (Amu Darya), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh); in the Persian inscriptions Bakhtri.
The valley is connected with many early Magian traditions, according to which Zoroaster dwelt at Balkh, where, in the 7th century B.C., his proselytizing efforts first came into operation.
630-644, found Termez, Khulm, Balkh, and above all Bamian, amply provided with monasteries, stupas and colossal images, which are the striking characteristics of prevalent Buddhism; even the Pamir highlands had their monasteries.
They held Kunduz, Balkh, Khwarizm and Khorasan, and for a time Badakshan also; but Badakshan was soon won by the emperor Baber, and in 1529 was bestowed on his cousin Suleiman, who by 1555 had established his rule over much of the region between the Oxus and the Hindu Kush.
About 1765 the wazir of Ahmad Shah Abdali of Kabul invaded Badakshan, and from that time until now the domination of the countries on the south bank of the Oxus from Wakhan to Balkh has been a matter of frequent struggles between Afghans and Uzbegs.
From Zari, on the road to Balkh by the Balkhab, at the east end of the Sokhtagi valley; Shahr-i-Babar, about 45 m.
There are hundreds of caves in this neighbourhood, all pointing to a line of Buddhist occupation connecting Balkh with Kabul.
North of the main water-parting of Afghanistan the broad synclinal plateau into which the Hindu Kush is merged is traversed by the gorges of the Saighan, Bamian and Kamard tributaries of the Kunduz, and farther to the west by the Band-i-Amir or Balkh river.
This appears to be the beginning of a new anticlinal which has altered the levels of the Balkh plain, and is indicative of those elevating processes which Afghan tan, together with the minor dependencies of the provinces.
One of these routes follows the Balkh river to its head from Tashkurghan, and then, preserving a high general level of 8000 to 9000 ft., it passes over the water-divides separating the upper tributaries of the Kunduz river, and drops into the valley formed by another tributary at Bamian.
The first army sent by Ziyad into Khorasan recaptured Merv, Herat and Balkh, conquered Tokharistan and advanced as far as the Oxus.
Balkh and Tokharistan, Bokhara, Samarkand and Khwarizm (modern Khiva), even Kabul and Kandahar had been subdued; but in the time of the civil war a great deal had been lost again.
His son Yahya, still a youth, fled to Balkh in Khorasan, but was discovered at last and hunted down, till he fell sword in hand under Walid II.
This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance.
Thereupon Ali fled from Balkh, leaving the treasury, which was plundered by the populace after his departure.
By 650 the Arabs had occupied every province to Balkh and the Oxus.
In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).
Eastward he extended his dominions to Balkh, and in the south his generals made the conquest of Bahrain (Bahrein), on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf, and the territory and islands of the Persian seaboard, inclusive of the mountainous province of Lar.
J7~5 ~ It shows, during the reign of the Safawids, Tiflis, Erivan, Khoi and Bagdad to have been within the limits of Persia on the west, and in like manner Balkh and Kandahar to have been.
Balkh fell to Ri~a Kuli, the kings son, who, moreover, crossed the Oxus and defeated the Uzbegs in battle.
From Herat he moved upon Balkh and Bokhara, and received the submission of Abul-Faiz Khan, the Uzbeg ruler, whom he restored to his throne on condition that the Oxus Northern should be the acknowledged boundary between the Con quests.
The first who wrote such a mathuawi was Abti Shukur of Balkh, the oldest literary representative of the third dynasty of KhorSsSn, the Skmgnids, who had been able in the course of time to dethrone the Saffarids, and to secure the government of Persia, nominally still under the supremacy of the caliphs in Bagdad, but in fact with full sovereignty.
Of Balkh, and contains 12,000 inhabitants, Uzbegs and Parsiwans.
In 1850 he conquered Balkh, and in 1854 he acquired control over the southern Afghan tribes by the capture of Kandahar.
Of Balkh, and only some 25 m.
ALBUMAZAR, more properly ABU-Maaschar (805-885), Arab astronomer, was born at Balkh, flourished at Bagdad, and died at Wasid in Central Asia.
BALKH, a city of Afghanistan, about loo m.
The city, which is identical with the ancient Bactra or Zainaspa, is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated on the right bank of the Balkh river, 1200 ft.
Ibn-Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th century, describes Balkh as built of clay, with ramparts and six gates, and extending half a parasang.
In 1220 Jenghiz Khan sacked Balkh, butchered its inhabitants and levelled all the buildings capable of defence, - treatment to which it was again subjected in the 14th century by Timur.
Balkh formed the government of Aurangzeb in his youth.
In 1850 Mahommed Akram Khan, Barakzai, captured Balkh, and from that time it remained under Afghan rule.
The province includes the khanates of Kunduz, Tashkurgan, Balkh with Akcha; the western khanates of Saripul, Shibarghan, Andkhui and Maimana, sometimes classed together as the Chahar Villayet, or "Four Domains"; and such parts of the Hazara tribes as lie north of the Hindu Kush and its prolongation.
The principal town is Mazar-i-Sharif, which in modern times has supplanted the ancient city of Balkh; and Taklitapul, near Mazar, is the chief Afghan cantonment north of the Hindu Kush.
Ancient Balkh or Bactriana was a province of the Achaemenian empire, and probably was occupied in great measure by a race of Iranian blood.
At the beginning of the 19th century they belonged to Bokhara; but under the great amir Dost Mahommed the Afghans recovered Balkh and Tashkurgan in 1850, Akcha and the four western khanates in 1855, and Kunduz in 1859.
Due west of Balkh on the edge of the Turkman desert.