The manufacture is chiefly carried out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk of the European demand.
Few people south of the Balkans dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province, and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of it.
Growing rivalry between Austria and Russia in the Balkans rendered the continuance of the League of the Three Emperors a practical impossibility.
Austrias petty persecutions of her Italian subjects in the irredente provinces, her active propaganda incompatible with Italian interests in the Balkans, and the antiItalian war talk of Austrian military circles, imperilled the relations of the two allies; it was remarked, indeed, that the object of the alliance between Austria and Italy was to prevent war between them.
It was clear that so long as Austria, bribed by Germany, could act in a way so opposed to Italian interests in the Balkans, the Triple Alliance was a mockery, and Italy could only meet the situation by being prepared for all contingencies.
The great tropical family of the Gesneraceae has left behind a few outliers: Ramondia in the Pyrenees, Haberlea in the Balkans, and Jankaea in Thessaly; the Pyrenees also possess a minute Dioscorea, sole European survivor of the yams of the tropics.
Above sea-level, between the Western Balkans on the N.
On the 4th of January 1878 a Russian army again entered Sofia after the passage of the Balkans by Gourko; the bulk of the Turkish population had previously taken flight.
To arrest his progress, a Crusade, preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mezieres, divisio and pro Aria voluntas, were the ruin of the crusading army, and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated.
Orkhan lent the desired aid; his son Suleiman Pasha, governor of Karassi, crossed into Europe, crushed Cantacuzenus's enemies, and penetrated as far as the Balkans, returning laden with spoil.
In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.
Thus, towards the end of his reign, Louis found himself cut off from the Greek emperor, his sole ally in the Balkans, by a chain of bitterly hostile Greek-Orthodox states, extending from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The 1 Knatchbull-Hugessen, i.
He never, indeed, jeopardized the position of the Moslems in Europe as his father had done, and thus the peace of Szeged (1444), which regained the line of the Danube and drove the Turk behind the Balkans, must always be reckoned as the high-water mark of Hungary's Turkish triumphs.
But the issues involved affected the stability of the Dual Monarchy and its position in Europe; and neither the king-emperor nor his Austrian advisers, their position strengthened by the success of Baron Aehrenthal's diplomatic victory in the Balkans, were prepared to make any substantial concessions to the party of Independence.
Deriving much benefit from the strategical transformation which had taken place in the Balkans consequent upon communications being opened between Thrace and the Central Powers; but there was every prospect of heavy artillery and munitions shortly beginning to find their way through from Germany and AustriaHungary to the Dardanelles.
But before marching south he led another expedition across the Balkans into the country now called Bulgaria, and returned to Pella with much spoil but severely wounded in the thigh.
But difficulties of finance, the impossibility of undertaking effective operations against Italy, and signs of impending trouble in the Balkans at length compelled the Ottoman Government to peace.
They deemed that now, with organized rebellion afoot in the Turkish Balkans, was the opportunity to recover Macedonia and Thrace for division among themselves.
Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.
The Bogomil propaganda follows the mountain chains of central Europe, starting from the Balkans and continuing along the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, with' ramifications north and south (Germany, England and Spain).
Settled along the Balkans as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgars, the Armenians on the contrary soon fraternized with the newcomers, whom they converted to their own views; even a prince of the Bulgarians adopted their teaching.
The popes in Rome whilst leading the Crusade against the Albigenses did not forget their counterpart in the Balkans and recommended the annihilation of the heretics.
In January 1878 he crossed the Balkans in a severe snowstorm, defeating the Turks at Senova, near Schipka, and capturing 36,000 men and go guns.
Of more importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60) which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded, and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99), by which the Ottoman power was driven from Hungary, and the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of the Balkans determined for a century to come.
The outbreak of disturbance in the Balkans ended this period of calm.
This time, however, the government, whose position in the Balkans had been much strengthened by the occupation of the new provinces, did not fear to act with decision.
Ali had no difficulty in finding the money; the garrison, as soon as it was received, marched out with the bulk of the inhabitants; and the last citadel of freedom in the Balkans fell to the tyrant of Iannina.'
The alleged occurrence of remains of members of the group in the Balkans apparently rests on insufficient evidence.
On the Bulgarian shore, linking the Rumanian railway system to the chief Bulgarian line north of the Balkans (Rustchuk-Varna).
The Danubian plain, lying, for the most part, outside the Peninsula, is enclosed, on the north, by the Carpathians; and on the south by the Balkans, from which the Peninsula derives its name.
Finally, beyond the Balkans lies the great Rumanian depression, occupied chiefly by undisturbed Cretaceous and Tertiary strata.
(For the Balkans, see Bulgaria.) Area and Population.
The treaty of Berlin followed, which limited the principality to the country between the Danube and the Balkans, created the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia south of the Balkans, and left the remainder of the proposed Bulgarian state under Turkish rule.
Joanne, Etats du Danube et des Balkans (Paris, 1895); R.
Millet, Souvenirs des Balkans (Paris, 1891); V.
Cambon, Autour des Balkans (Paris, 1890); P. J.
Hamard, Par dela l'Adriatique et les Balkans (Paris, 1890); E.
De Laveleye, La Peninsule des Balkans (Brussels, 1886).
Brooches are found in great numbers, both those derived from the primitive safety-pin ("Peschiera" type) and the "spectacle" or "Hallstatt" type found all down the Balkans and in Greece.
Accordingly, the enraged Goths, under their chief Fritigern, streamed across the Balkans into Thrace and the country round Adrianople, plundering, burning and slaughtering as they went.
But Gioberti, in his Primato, seemed to him to neglect the first essential of independence, which he accordingly inculcated in his Speranze or Hopes of Italy, in which he suggests that Austria should seek compensation in the Balkans for the inevitable loss of her Italian provinces.
He was determined to preserve the interests of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans, but also showed himself prepared to meet the Russian wishes in the Dardanelles question.
But the Bulgarians had skilfully exploited their primacy during the first war to induce the European press and public to regard Serbians and Greeks as mere satellites,' and, as is not unusually the case with successful propaganda, they had come to believe in it themselves, fortified in the belief by fulsome compliments addressing them as the "Prussians of the Balkans" and the "Japanese of the West."
Palat produced a volume, Guerre des Balkans, which assembles most of the known evidence for the Thracian campaign.
Primitive "; 12 and Zeus, we may believe, long remained at Dodona such as he was when the Hellenic tribes first brought him down from the Balkans, a high God supreme in heaven and in earth.
In the west the northern highlands develop two branches: (I) the Kuren Dagh, stretching through the Great and Little Balkans to the Caspian at Krasnovodsk Bay, (2) the Ala Dagh, forming a continuation of the Binalud Kuh and joining the mountains between Bujnurd and Astarabad, which form part of the Elburz system.
In 3 82 the pacification of the Balkans was complete.
He entered the diplomatic service and acted as political agent for the army of the Danube and the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish War (1877-8).
Miller, The Balkans (London, 1896).
The Istro-Rumanian forms, as it were, a link - now completely severed - between the Romance of the Balkans and/the Romance of the West.
On the east of this river, three vast ranges, the Transylvanian Alps, the Balkans and Rhodope, encroach upon Servian soil; while on the west there is a chaos of mountain masses, outliers of the Bosnian and Albanian highlands.
The Timok, which formed the Bulgarian frontier as long ago as the 9th century, springs in the western Balkans, or Stara Planina, and issues into the Danube, near Negotin, after a course of 70 m.
The Germans and AustroHungarians control a large share of the commerce of the country; the Jews, as elsewhere in the Balkans, are retail traders.
At a funeral, the coffin is left open until the last moment - a custom found everywhere in the Balkans, and said to have been introduced by the Turks, who found that coffins were a convenient hiding-place for arms. The same practice is, however, common in Spain and Portugal.
But the situation created by Prince Milan's action in the Balkans forced the hand of the tsar, and Russia declared war on Turkey (1877).
Meanwhile the events of 1875-1878 in the Balkans, culminating in the Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, revived the agitation for a "Great Croatia."
At intervening points are still found many notable Roman remains, such as Trajan's road, a marvellous work on the right bank of the river in the rocky Kazan defile (separating the Balkans on the south from the Carpathians on the north), where a contemporary commemorative tablet is still conspicuously visible.
These countries, particularly in the Balkans, were often small and tended toward war.
See also P. de Laveleye, La Peninsule des Balkans (Brussels, 1886); V.