Factories for cleaning and baling raw cotton and for extracting cotton oil were set up, and employed a large number of people, mostly in Ferghana.
Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.
It is certain that, until the cultivator availed himself of the natural overflow of the Nile to saturate the soil, Egypt must have been a desert, and it is a very small step from that to baling up the water from the river and pouring it over lands which the natural flood has not touched.
The sculptures and paintings of ancient Egypt bear no trace of anything approaching scientific irrigation, but they often show the peasant baling up the water at least as early as 2000 B.C. By means of this simple plan of raising water and pouring it over the fields thousands of acres are watered every year in India, and the system has many advantages in the eyes of the peasant.
The "streaks" 1 or "heads" of jute as they come from the bale are in a hard condition in consequence of having been subjected to a high hydraulic pressure during baling; it is therefore necessary to soften them before any further process is entered.