With these powers should come enormous checks and balances on their use.
In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
In spite of all this complicated machinery of checks and balances, revolution followed upon revolution, nor could an occasional reign of terror be prevented like that of the Signore Gauthier de Brienne, duke of Athens (1342-1343).
Napoleon swept away the checks and balances, and made the will of a single man the one and only sanction of government.
Scale-beams are the most accurate balances, and the most generally used.
He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).
In ordinary trade balances a triangular piece of hard steel, with a finely-ground edge, is driven through a triangular hole in the beam and jammed tight.
For the above reasons spring balances are nbt in general so accurate as knife-edge machines.
The excess expenditure caused the Post Office during two or three years to make temporary application of Savings Banks' balances to telegraph expenditure, an expedient which was disapproved of by both the Treasury and the House of Commons.
Some balances are provided with a "specific gravity pan," i.e.
In_ like manner de Maistre proposed to sweep away the ecclesiastical checks and balances, and vest the whole of the Church's authority in the pope.
The counterpoise w balances the head about its axis of rotation.
In 1851 these balances, improved by Richard Pitcher, were introduced at the Royal Mint, and modifications of them are now used at most foreign mints.
The public indebtedness of Mexico includes a foreign debt payable in gold, an internal debt payable in silver, and a floating debt covering unpaid balances on appropriations, unpaid interest, and other credits and obligations.
2) the ram A has an annular area so proportioned that when it is connected with the water in an elevated tank (usually placed somewhere in the roof of the building), the hydraulic pressure upon it just balances the weight of the ram and cage.
The sage of Epicureanism is a rational and reflective seeker for happiness, who balances the claims of each pleasure against the evils that may possibly ensue, and treads the path of enjoyment cautiously.
In the Wiechert astatic pendulum seismometer the stationary mass is also cheese-shaped, but it is supported by a conical extension from its base, which balances it on the floor of its case.
This treaty showed that Sweden weighed more in the French balances than Denmark.
The percentage of farms worked by owners fell from 69.1% in 1880 to 54.6% in 1900; the difference of the balances or 1 4.5% indicates the increase of tenant holdings, two-thirds of these being for shares.
Hence a glass tube plunged into water would become wet all over were it not that the ascending liquid film carries up a quantity of other liquid which coheres to it, so that when it has ascended to a certain height the weight of the column balances the force by which the film spreads itself over the glass.
Hence the liquid will rise in the tube till the weight of the vertical column between the free surface and the level of the liquid in the vessel balances the resultant of the surface-tension.
To determine the relation between the surface-tension and the pressure which balances it when the form of the surface is not spherical, let us consider the following case: Let fig.
Existing in the Paris library and in the university of Leiden, and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had translations made of six treatises - two, of which he gives the titles as Livre de la royaute and Petit Livre de la misericorde,-from Paris, and four - Livre des balances, Livre de la misericorde, Livre de la concentration and Livre de la mercure orientale - from Leiden.
Hence we may suppose that a condition has been attained in which the denser salt water below and around the saucer CC (greatly exaggerated in vertical scale) balances the less dense, but deeper Salb Water v sand,.
Mechanical devices for determining weights or comparing the masses of bodies may be classified as (a) equal-armed balances, (b) unequal-armed balances, (c) spring balances and (d) automatic machines.
Equal-armed balances may be divided into (t) scale-beams or balances in which the scale-pans are below the beam; (2) counter machines and balances on the same principle, in which the scale-pans are above the beam.
Unequal-armed balances may be divided into (I) balances consisting of a single steelyard; (2) balances formed by combinations of unequal-armed levers and steelyards, such as platform machines, weighbridges, &c.
Bearing in mind that with ordinary trade balances there is always a possi - bility of the scale-pans and chains getting interchanged, these conditions require; (a) That the beam without the scale-pans and chains must be equally balanced and horizontal; (b) that the two scale-pans with their chains must be of equal weight; (c) that the arms of the beam must be exactly equal in length; i.e.
The chief reason for testing balances with weights in the scale-pans rather than with the scale - pans empty, is that the balance might be unstable with the weights though stable without them.
This is not an infrequent occurrence, and arises from the tendency on the part of manufacturers to make balances so extremely sensitive that they are on the verge of in - stability.
In order to ensure a high degree of sensitiveness, balances are sometimes constructed so that Z is slightly below the line joining X and Y, and is only slightly above H, the centre of gravity of the beam with the scale - pans and chains attached.
For the weighing of very small quantities with balances of great delicacy, the following method is adopted: - If the balance be in perfect adjustment, and 1 be the length of each arm, and w a very minute difference of the weights in the two scale-pans, by which the beam is deflected from the horizontal by a very small angle (/), it can easily be shown that tan 0, or 4), varies as w XI.
Therefore for balances of precision the end knife-edges are fixed on the top of the beam so as to present a continuous unbroken knife-edge, and the fulcrum knife-edge is also made continuous, the beam being cored out or cut away to admit of the introduction of the stand bearing.
With balances of the highest precision it may be as high as 17 - 6 - 6 4, 0 o th of the load weighed, while with trade balances when new it would be about 2000 t h of the load.
For with unstable balances, although the smallest excess of weight in the goods-pan will cause it to descend till it is brought up by its stop, yet being in this position, a very much greater weight than the difference which brought it there will be required in the weights-pan to enable it to mount again.
Balances are frequently used as counting machines, when the articles to be counted are all of the same weight or nearly so, and this method is both quick and accurate.
For many purposes spring balances are the most convenient of all weighing machines.
Their indications also vary with the temperature, so that for good work it is advisable that spring balances should be frequently checked with standard weights.
The value of E depends upon the tempering of the wire and will vary accordingly: for the springs of trade balances E will usually be about 10,500,000.
While Charles Fox's father was at the pay-office (1765-1778) he realized as the interest of the cash balances which he was allowed to retain in his hands, nearly a quarter of a million of money.
It was his principle that service pays service, that a day's labour balances a day's labour - in other words, that the duration of labour is the just measure of value.
Dealers pass their debit and credit vouchers into the Cotton Bank and pay or receive the balances which they owe or are entitled to.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
The great novelty in the ampere balances of Lord Kelvin was a joint or electric coupling, which is at once exceedingly flexible and yet capable of being constructed to carry with safety any desired current.
5 the current is shown dividing round the two rings; but in all the balances, except those intended for the largest currents, the current really circulates first round one ring and then round the other.
Each of these balances is made to cover a certain range of reading.
Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.
Across the arms he balances the iron rod to which the glass bulb adheres, and rolling it backwards and forwards with the fingers of his left hand fashions the glass between the blades of his sugar-tongs tool, grasped in his right hand.
But this simple relation is only true of the net balances of heat and work in a complete cyclical process, which must be adopted for theoretical purposes if we wish to eliminate the unknown changes of intrinsic energy.
The balances used in the Royal Mint were further improved by J.
In most foreign mints the blanks are weighed by the automatic balances before being struck, and those which are too heavy are reduced by filing or planing.
But there is always leakage of energy either through friction or through wave-emission, so that the vibration only increases up to the point at which the leakage of energy balances the energy put in by the applied force.
It is a system amply provided with checks and balances; it recognizes and enforces the principle of popular sovereignty, while subjecting that principle to many checks in practice; and it is well calculated to maintain unchanged the relation of its component parts each to the other.
Although this method balances the pistons in the horizontal plane, and thus allows the pull of the engine on the train to be exerted without the variation due to the reciprocation of the pistons, yet the force balanced horizontally is introduced vertically and appears as a variation of pressure on the rail.
Bossuet and the old-fashioned divines had believed in an elaborate system of checks and balances - popes, councils, bishops, temporal sovereigns each limiting and controlling the other - just as Montesquieu and Alexander Hamilton had believed in a careful separation of the executive from the legislative power.
The Bombay government exhausted its balances in 1897, and was subsequently dependent on grants from the government of India.
Some one balances the toboggan on the very crest of the hill, while we get on, and when we are ready, off we dash down the side of the hill in a headlong rush, and, leaping a projection, plunge into a snow-drift and go swimming far across the pond at a tremendous rate!...