The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life.
LENKORAN, a town in Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Baku, stands on the Caspian Sea, at the mouth of a small stream of its own name, and close to a large lagoon.
In 1579 Christopher Burroughs built a ship at Nizhniy Novgorod and traded across the Caspian to Baku; and in 1598 Sir Anthony and Robert Shirley arrived in Persia, and Robert was afterwards sent by the shah to Europe as his ambassador.
In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
In other parts of the empire there were four cities each having over too,000 inhabitants in that year, namely, Baku, Tiflis, Tashkent and Helsingfors.
A third line of great importance is the junction line between the Transcaucasian railway - which runs from Batum and Poti to Baku, via Tiflis, with a branch line to Kars - and the railway system of Russia proper.
Extremity, that is, via the Caspian ports of Baku and Petrovsk, which are connected with Vladikavkaz (Beslan junction).
BAKU, the chief town of the government of the same name, in Russian Transcaucasia, on the south side of the peninsula of Apsheron, in 40° 21' N.
Owing to its excellent harbour Baku is a chief depot for merchandise coming from Persia and Transcaspia - raw cotton, silk, rice, wine, fish, dried fruit and timber - and for Russian manufactured goods.
Henry, Baku, an Eventful History (1906).
They correspond roughly with the governments of Kutais, Tiflis, Elisavetpol and Baku, and have a population of nearly 3,650,000.
Annually at Baku, and it is still less in the Mugan steppe, though quite abundant in the adjacent region of Lenkoran.
It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
Large numbers of mulberry trees are planted for rearing silkworms, especially in Kutais, Erivan, Elisavetpol (Nukha) and Baku (Shemakha); the groves occupy nearly 150,000 acres, and the winding of the silk gives employment to large numbers of the population.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
A good deal of this is transported by gravitation from Baku to Batum on the Black Sea by means of a pipe laid overland.
In addition large quantities are shipped at Baku direct for the Volga and the Transcaspian port of Krasnovodsk.
Ports (Baku and Petrovsk) to the value of over 12 millions sterling in all.
North of Vladikavkaz, the main line proceeds east of Petrovsk on the Caspian, and from Petrovsk skirts the shore southwards as far as Baku, the distance from Vladikavkaz to Baku being 414 m.
Baku and Batum (also Poti) are connected by another main line, 560 m.
Russian aggression began somewhat early in the r8th century, when Peter the Great, establishing his base at Astrakhan on the Volga, and using the Caspian for bringing up supplies and munitions of war, captured Derbent from the Persians in 1722, and Baku in the following year.
This ferment of unrest, which was provoked in the years 1903-190 4, was exacerbated in the winters that followed by the renewed outbreak of the century-long racial feud between the Tatars and the Armenians at Baku and other places.
Many of the oil wells at Baku were burned, and massacres took place at that town, at Shusha, at Erivan, at Tiflis, at Batum, at Jebrail and at other places.
It has the province of Terek on the N.W., the government of Tiflis on the S.W., and that of Baku on the S.E.
A railway line to connect the North Caucasian line (Rostov to Petrovsk) with the Transcaucasian line (Batum to Baku) has been built along the Caspian shore from Petrovsk, through the "gate" or pass of Derbent, to Baku.
Marco Polo refers to the oil springs of Baku towards the end!of the 13th century; the medicinal properties of the oil of Tegernsee in Bavaria gave it the name of " St Quirinus's Oil " in 1436; the oil of Pechelbronn, Elsass, was discovered in 1498, and the " earthbalsam " of Galicia was known in 1506.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
Eichler, of Baku, is stated to have been the first to introduce, in Russia, the use of sulphuric acid, followed by that of soda lye, and his process is in universal use at the present time.
ASTARA, a port of Russian Transcaucasia, government of Baku, on the Caspian, in 38° 27' N.
There is more than one meaning of Baku discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
In adventures in Asia Minor, He was reported in x920-21 to have been employed at Moscow as director of the Asiatic department in the Soviet Government, and to have posed at the Baku Congress of Oriental Peoples as the leader of a great Socialist movement in the middle east and north Africa.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
Sailing into the Caspian, he ravaged the Persian coasts from Derbend to Baku, massacred the inhabitants of the great emporium of Resht, and in the spring of 1669 established himself on the isle of Suina, off which, in July, he annihilated a Persian fleet sent against him.
SHEMAKHA, a town of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Baku, 70 m.
Of the town of Baku, and in 40° 38' N.
In 1795 they captured Shemakha as well as Baku; but the conquest was once more abandoned, and Shirvan was not finally annexed to Russia until 1805.
One, known as the Sas Baku, is beautifully adorned with bas-reliefs.
BAKU, a government of Russian Transcaucasia, stretching along the west coast of the Caspian Sea from 41° 50' to 38° 30' N.
The government is divided into six districts, the chief towns of which are Baku (the capital of the government), Geok-chai (pop. 2247 in 1897), Kuba (15,346), Lenkoran (8768), Salyany (10,168), in district of Jevat, and Shemakha (20,008).
Baku, Russia >>
The war which lasted from May 1722 to September 1723 was altogether successful, resulting in the acquisition of the towns of Baku and Derbent.
NAPHTHA, a word originally applied to the more fluid kinds of petroleum, issuing from the ground in the Baku district of Russia and in Persia.
From Baku was 72.9°, but that below io fathoms it sank rapidly, and at 200 fathoms and below it was constant at 21.2°.
The development of the petroleum industry in the Apeshron peninsula (Baku) and the opening (1886) of the Transcaspian railway have greatly increased the traffic across the Caspian Sea.
Baku, Russia (Government) >>
A few cases of plague occurred in January 1877 at Baku on the west shore of the Caspian, in Russian territory.'
The Astrakhan disease may have been imported from Resht or Baku, or may have been caused concurrently with the epidemics of these places by some cause affecting the basin of the Caspian generally.
There is also a herring which frequents only the southern half of the Caspian, not passing over the shallow part of the sea which extends from Baku eastwards.
Here he was enabled, through the assistance of a friend of his father, to raise a small force with which to take possession of Baku on the Caspian, and thence to march upon Shemakha in Shirvan, a town abandoned to him without a struggle.
In July 1722, by which he agreed to drive the Afghans out Of Persia on condition that Darband (Derbend), Baku, Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad were ceded to Russia in perpetuity.
Derbent was taken possession of by Imhov, Baku and Shumakhy were occupied and Gilan was threatened.
The death of the empress, however, caused the issue of an order to retire, and Derbent and Baku remained the only trophies of the campaign.
The Russians, moreover, made a futile attempt on Gilan by landing troops at Enzeli, which returned to Baku, where Zizianov fell a victim to the treachery of the Persian governor.
He had practically made no progress; yet Russia, in securing possession of Derbent, Baku, Shirvan, Sheki, Garja, the Talysh and M ugan, was probably indebted to gold as well as to the force of arms. At the same time Persia would not listen to the overtures of peace made to her by the governor-general who had succeeded Zizianov.
The Persian~ then carried all before them; and the hereditary chiefs of Shirvan, Sheki and Baku returned from exile to co-operate with the shahs general in the south.