The cause of the failure of Murdoch's original vertical retort was undoubtedly that it was completely filled with coal during charging, with the result that the gas liberated from the lower portions of the retort had to pass through a deep bed of red-hot coke, which, by over-baking the gas, destroyed the illuminating hydrocarbons.
The warm smell of cinnamon and nutmeg makes Ellie reminisce on time spent with her grandmother baking apple pies.
These have now to pass down the heated retort on their way to the ascension pipe, and the contact with the heated sides of the retort, and the baking from the radiant heat in the retort, set up an infinity of changes.
The heating as well as the illuminating value of the gas per unit volume is lowered by over-baking, and Dr Bueb gives the following figures as to the heating value of gas obtained from the same coal but by different methods of carbonization: Vertical Retorts, 604 British thermal units per cub.
Betsy was in the kitchen, baking scones for a mid-morning snack, while the rest of us were lounging around the main room vetoing each other's suggestions.
On Friday morning Bird Song's full complement of guests were treated to the usual bounty of Cynthia's baking, but with less zip and smiles than most days.
The afternoon sun was high in the sky, baking the revelers in summer warmth as they clustered around the intersection of Sixth and Main Street, the site of the infamous water fight.
Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and fish-curing, preserving and packing factories.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.
He had taught his child to whistle, dined with his servants, talked of "worldly things such as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing and mining," preferred walking to riding, and denounced the debasement of the coinage.
It may be stated roundly that an average quartern loaf in Great Britain is made from wheat grown in the following countries in the proportions named: - For details connected with grain and its handling see Agriculture, Corn Laws, Granaries, Flour, Baking, Wheat, &C. Wheat occupies of all cereals the widest region of any foodstuff.
Bakers' shops are also frequent, though arrangements for grinding and baking appear to have formed part of every large family establishment.
Nearly all its old industries - the coal mines, salt works, linen manufacture, and even the making of iron girdles for the baking of scones - have dwindled, but its pleasant climate and picturesqueness make it a holiday resort.
To produce plaster of Paris European practice consists in baking the mineral in ovens, and in America in heating it in kettles.
Having no metal or other vessels in which to boil water, all cooking is done by baking, generally in holes in the ground.
The hot season begins officially in the Punjab on the 15th of March, and from that date there is a steady rise in the temperature, induced by the fiery rays of the sun upon the baking earth, until the break of the rains in June.
By this process of preparation a considerable portion of the narcotine, caoutchouc, resin, oil or fatty and insoluble matters are removed, and the prolonged boiling, evaporating and baking over a naked fire tend to lessen the amount of alkaloids present in the extract.
Subjection to the temperature of boiling water for, say, half an hour seemed an efficient mode of sterilization, until it was discovered that the spores of bacteria are so involved in heat-resisting membranes, that only prolonged exposure to dry, baking heat can be recognized as an efficient process of sterilization.
This bread is made by burying the materials for months, till the mass is thoroughly fermented and homogeneous, when it is dug up and cooked by baking or steaming.
Other important industries are engineering, sugar-refining (established 1757), meat-preserving, flour-milling, sailcloth-making, soap-boiling, rope and twine-making, tanning, chemical manures-making, wood-sawing, hosiery, biscuit-baking, brewing, distilling and lime-juice making.