Perhaps the best natural harbour of the republic is that of Bahia Blanca, a large bay of good depth, sheltered by islands, and 534 m.
South of Bahia Blanca is the sheltered bay of San Blas, which may become of commercial importance, and between the 42nd and 43rd parallels are the land-locked bays of San Jose and Nueva (Golfo Nuevo) - the first as yet unused; on the latter is Puerto Madryn, 838 m.
The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.
The naval arsenal is situated on the " north basin " of the Buenos Aires port, and the military port at Bahia Blanca is provided with a dry dock of the largest size, and extensive repair shops.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
By Ceara, Pernambuco and Bahia, and S.
By Alagoas and Bahia, and W.
GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The southern half of the state, however, slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga (whose source is in the state of Bahia and which is called Vasa Barris at its mouth), the Real, and the Cotinguiba.
The surface of the state resembles in part that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast, and back of this a higher zone of rough open country, called agrestes.
By Goyaz and Bahia, E.
By Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, S.
Shore, beginning at the W., Bahia Honda, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Nuevitas and Nipe; and on the S.
The highest part is the Pan de Guajaibon, near Bahia Honda, at the W.
Bahia, Brazil (State) >>
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
In the larger depressions, like that of the Reconcavo of Bahia, there are large alluvial areas celebrated for their fertility.
The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from eastern Sao Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the Sao Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names.
The Sao Francisco chapadao, which has a general elevation of about 2600 ft., covers the greater part of the states of Minas Geraes and Bahia, and a small part of western Pernambuco, and might also be considered continuous with those of the Parnahyba and Tocantins-Araguaya basins.
This region is well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where the rainfall is heavy and regular.
It breaks down less abruptly toward the Atlantic, the slopes in Bahia being long and gradual.
Gevas, Bahia (S.Salvador) Barcellos rrado Contas Ilheos 0livenca Q ?f19H ostardas rJ°?
The more important of these rivers are the Itapicuru, Paraguassu, Contas or Jussiape, Pardo or Patype, and Jequitinhonha, of Bahia; the Mucury, and Doce, of Espirito Santo; and the Parahyba do Sul of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Of the Bahia group, the Jequitinhonha, sometimes called the Belmonte on its lower course, is the longest and most important, rising near Serro in the state of Minas Geraes and flowing in a curving north-east direction for a distance of about 500 m., 84 of which are navigable inland from the sea.
The larger and more important of these are Todos os Santos, on which is located the city of Sao Salvador or Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro or Guanabara, beside which stands the capital of the republic. These two are freely accessible to the largest ships afloat.
At Pernambuco the mean summer temperature is 79.5° and that of winter 76.8°, which are about 3° lower than the mean temperature of Bahia in summer, and 5° higher than the Bahia mean in winter.
South of Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de Janeiro exceeding 43 in.
The interior districts of Ceara, Pernambuco and Bahia have suffered severely from these seccas.
All the rivers are richly stocked, and valuable fishing grounds are to be found along the coast, especially that of southern Bahia and Espirito Santo where the garoupa (Serranus) is found in large numbers.
Between Parahyba and southern Bahia forests and open plains are intermingled; thence southward the narrow coastal plain and bordering mountain slopes are heavily forested.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
4 The Brazilian official titles are given for the state capitals: Belem for Para; Sao Luiz for Maranhao; Sao Salvador for Bahia; and Recife for Pernambuco.
The comparatively short lines extending inland from the ports of Sao Salvador (Bahia), Pernambuco, Maceio, Victoria and Paranagua serve only a narrow zone along the coast.
The principal sugar-producing states are Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons, the greater part of which is consumed in the country.
Tobacco is also widely cultivated, and the product of some states, such as Bahia, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, has a high local reputation for its excellence.
Caca.0 (cocoa) is cultivated extensively in the Amazon Valley and along the coast as far south as southern Bahia, and forms one of the leading exports.
Ceara., Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples.
In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds.
Palm, or piassava fibre, derived from the piassava palm, is used in the manufacture of brooms, brushes, &c. It is found as far south as southern Bahia, and the export could be very largely increased.
Diamonds have also been found in Bahia, Goyaz and Parana..
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
The coast from the Rio Sao Francisco to Bahia was granted to Francisco Pereira Coutinho; the bay itself, with all its creeks, was afterwards added to the grant.
He was surrounded by a patriarchal establishment of wives and children; and to him most of the distinguished families of Bahia still trace their lineage.
He was instructed to build a strong city in Bahia and to establish there the seat of his government.
In pursuance of his commission he arrived at Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred convicts and about three hundred free colonists.
The new city, to which the name of Sao Salvador was given, was established on the heights above the Bay of All Saints (Todos os Santos), from which its later name of Bahia is taken.
In 1586 Witherington plundered Bahia; E and i n 1591 Cavendish made an abortive attack on Santos; French in 1595 Lancaster attacked Olinda.
The fall of Bahia for once roused the Spaniards and Portuguese to joint action, and a great expedition speedily sailed from Cadiz and Lisbon for Bahia.
The honours bestowed upon the Indian chiefs for their assistance in this war broke down in a great measure the barrier between the two races; and there is at this day a greater admixture of their blood among the better classes in Bahia than is to be found elsewhere in Brazil.
Bahia, as capital of the Brazilian states, felt that its ascendancy depended upon the union with Portugal.
Duguay Trouin departed to Bahia to obtain fresh spoils; but having lost in a storm two of his best ships, with an important part of the money received, he renounced this plan and returned directly to France.
They arrived at Bahia on the 21st of January 1808, and were received with enthusiasm.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
Another conspiracy to establish a republican government was promptly smothered in Bahia, and the outbreak in Pernambuco was put down after a republic had been formed there for ninety days.
These scenes were repeated in Pernambuco, where the Portuguese, after various conflicts, were obliged to leave the country; in Bahia, however, as well as in Maranhao and Para, the Portuguese prevailed.