Thus (though earlier Indian and Bactrian coins do not show it) it is found with the gods on some of the coins of the Indian kings Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva, 58 B.C. to A.D.
It may be mentioned that the Bactrian camel, which is a shorter-legged and more ponderous animal than the Arabian species, grows an enormously long and thick winter coat, which is shed in blanket-like masses in spring.
On the other hand, the Bactrian species, which is employed throughout a large tract of central Asia in the domesticated condition, appears, according to recent researches, to exist in the wild state in some of the central Asian deserts.
Leche shows that the wild Bactrian camel differs from the domesticated breed of central Asia in the following external characters: the humps are smaller; the long hair does not occupy nearly so much of the body; the colour is much more rufous; and the ears and muzzle are shorter.
Dr Leche also institutes a comparison between the skeletons of the wild and the tame Bactrian camel with the remains of certain fossil Asiatic camels, namely, Camelus knoblochi from Sarepta, Russia, and C. alutensis from the Aluta valley, Rumania.
This comparison leads to the important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus ferus comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar.
The Bactrian camel is, if possible, of still more importance to many of the central Asian Mongol races, supplying them alike with food and raiment.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
Contingents of the fine Bactrian cavalry followed Alexander into India.
There are also large flocks of sheep, cows, goats, ponies, fine dogs and Bactrian camels.
The Yue-Chi were probably the principal means of disseminating it in India, though all movements 'which kept open the communications between Bactria and Persia and India must have contributed, and the first introduction was' due to the short-lived Graeco-Bactrian conquest (180-130 B.C.).
The other section occupied the Punjab and possessed themselves of the territory which the Graeco-Bactrian kings had acquired in India, that is Sind, Gujarat and Malwa.
But there is no reason for this extensive use of the name, and the term "old Bactrian" is, therefore, at present completely abandoned by scholars.
Many modern authors have attempted to make history out of these stories, and have created an old Bactrian empire of great extent, the kings of which had won great victories over the Turanians.
But a great Bactrian empire certainly never existed; the Bactrians and their neighbours were in old times ruled by petty local kings, one of whom was Vishtaspa, the protector of Zoroaster.
Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids; and when Antiochus III., "the Great," had been defeated by the Romans (190 B.C.), the Bactrian king Euthydemus and his son Demetrius crossed the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of eastern Iran and the Indus valley.
On the coins struck in India, the well-known Indian alphabet (called Brahmi by the Indians, the older form of the Devanagari) is used; on the coins struck in Afghanistan and in the Punjab the Kharoshthi alphabet, which is derived directly from the Aramaic and was in common use in the western parts of India, as is shown by one of the inscriptions of Asoka and by the recent discovery of many fragments of Indian manuscripts, written in Kharoshthi, in eastern Turkestan (formerly this alphabet has been called Arianic or Bactrian Pali; the true name is derived from Indian sources).
The weakness of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdoms was shown by their sudden and complete overthrow.
For the Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Scythian kingdoms see (beside articles on the separate kings): - H.
The Graeco-Bactrian dominion was overwhelmed entirely about 126 B.C. by the Yue-chi, a numerous people who had been driven westwards from their settlements on the borders of China by the Hiungnu (q.v.).
Spoµas, Spo / 2 Bos, running, Spaµ€iv, to run), a word applied to swift riding camels of either the Arabian or the Bactrian species.
The twohumped Bactrian camel is commonly used in the Oxus regions, but is seldom seen near the Indian frontier.
On the west, the Seleucids diffused Greek influences, and sent forth Graeco-Bactrian expeditions to the Punjab.
The Buddhist dynasty of Chandragupta profoundly modified the religion of northern India from the east; the Seleucid empire, with its Bactrian and later offshoots, deeply influenced the science and art of Hindustan from the west.
Amongst the domestic animals are the buffalo, the Syrian camel, and a mule camel, bred from a Bactrian sire and Syrian mother.
The best animals, he notes, are a cross between the Bactrian or two-humped and the Arabian or one-humped camel, Sheep, goats, dogs and cats are good of their kind; but not all the last are the beautiful creatures which, bearing the name of the country, have arrived at such distinction in Europe.
Thus an active Hellenic life soon arose in the East; and Greek settlers must have come in numbers and founded new cities, which afterwards formed the basis of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom.
The dedication of a Bactrian, Hyspasines, son of Mithroaxes, in the inventory of the temple of Apollo in Delos, Dittenberger, Sylloge, 588, 1.109) even though they were unable to renounce their innate characteristics.
Zend or Old Bactrian,Neither of these two titles is well chosen.
The name Old Bactrian suggests that the language was limited to the small district of Bactria, or at least that it was spoken therewhich is, at the most, only an Zend.
ROXANA, or Roxane, daughter of the Bactrian king Oxyartes, and wife of Alexander the Great.
About 250 B.C. Diodotus (Theodotus), governor of Bactria under the Seleucidae, declared his independence, and commenced the history of the Greco-Bactrian dynasties, which succumbed to Parthian and nomadic movements about 126 B.C. After this came a Buddhist era which has left its traces in the gigantic sculptures at Bamian and the rock-cut topes of Haibak.