Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording.
Though the causal relationship of a bacterium to a disease may be completely established by the methods given, another very important part of bacteriology is concerned with the poisons or toxins formed by bacteria.
" Reports on the Bacteriology of Water," Proc. R.
Abbott, Principles of Bacteriology (7th ed., London, 1905); Crookshank, Bacteriology and Infective Diseases (with bibliography, 4th ed., London, 1896); Duclaux, Traite de microbiologie (Paris, 1899-1900); Eyre, Bacteriological Technique (Philadelphia and London, 1902); Flugge, Die Mikroorganismen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896); Fischer, Vorlesungen fiber Bakterien (2nd ed., Jena, 1902); Gunther, Einfiihrung in das Studium der Bakteriologie (6th ed., Leipzig, 1906); Hewlett, Manual of Bacteriology (2nd ed., London, 1902); Hueppe, Principles of Bacteriology (translation, London, 1899); Klein, Micro-organisms and Disease (3rd ed., London, 1896); Kolle and Wassermann, Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen (Jena, 1904) (supplements are still being published; this is the most important work on the subject); Lofler, Vorlesungen fiber die geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von der Bacterien (Leipzig, 1887); M`Farland, Text-book upon the Pathogenic Bacteria (5th ed., London, 1906); Muir and Ritchie, Manual of Bacteriology (with bibliography, 4th ed., Edin.
And Lond., 1908); Park, Pathogenic Micro-organisms (London, 5906); Sternberg, Manual of Bacteriology (with full bibliography, 2nd ed., New York, 1896); Woodhead, Bacteria and their products (with bibliography, London, 1891).
Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.
The bacteriology of the infective diseases (with bibliography) is fully given in the System of Medicine, edited by Clifford Allbutt, (2nd ed., London, 1907).
B.) Pathological Importance The action of bacteria as pathogenic agents is in great part merely an instance of their general action as producers of chemical change, yet bacteriology as a whole has become so extensive, and has so important a bearing on subjects widely different from one another, that division of it has become essential.
Conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics.
The discoveries made in pathological bacteriology, indeed, must be held to be among the most brilliant of the age.
Of this method the rise and wonderful extension of the science of bacteriology also furnished no inconsiderable part.
Again, besides giving us the clue to the nature of many diseases and to the continuity of many morbid series, by bacteriology certain diseases, such as actinomycosis, have been recognized for the first time.
As regards infections, it is not to be supposed that our knowledge of these maladies has been advanced by pathology and bacteriology only.
The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics (Konigl.Institut fiir experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums.
Indeed, nothing marks the attitude of modern bacteriology more clearly than the increasing attention which is being paid to useful fermentations.
A branch of bacteriology which offers numerous problems of importance is that which deals with the organisms so common in milk, butter and cheese.
These facts, and the further knowledge that many bacteria never observed as parasites, or as pathogenic forms, produce toxins or poisons as the result of their decompositions and fermentations of organic substances, have led to important results in the applications of bacteriology to medicine.
Vi.; Lehmann and Neumann, Atlas and Essentials of Bacteriology; also the works of Migula and Fischer already cited.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.