Venter's plan is to use bacteria to brew fuel, much like we brew beer today.
Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
He introduced bacteria into liquid sterile nutrient gelatin.
For the growth of bacteria there must be a certain food supply, moisture, in most cases oxygen, and a certain minimum temperature.
263; Engelmann, " Chemiotaxis of Oxygen for Bacteria," Arch.
The coarser particles of the sediments are deposited near the shore as gravels, sand and muds, but the very fine particles remain in suspension in the colloidal form, and some of this may be acted upon by marine bacteria or (it is surmised) even utilized by diatoms as a source of silica.
Drew found as many as 160 millions of denitrifying bacteria per c.c. of sea-water on the W.
The urea in urine is also rapidly converted by the uro-bacteria into ammonium carbonate.
The change takes place in two stages and is effected by two special groups of nitrifying bacteria, which are present in all soils.
The only groups of plants in which typical nuclei have not been found are the Cyanophyceae, Bacteria and Yeast Fungi.
Bacteria of various kinds which alight upon their surfaces begin to fructify in abundance, but are rapidly destroyed as they burrow deeply.
One cubic centimetre of soil taken within a foot or so from the surface contains from II to 2 millions of bacteria of many different kinds, as well as large numbers of fungi.
Denitrifying bacteria will raise the alkalinity (or reduce the H-ion concentration) by forming ammonia, which will combine with the carbonic acid in solution and so throw down normal carbonate of lime.
Cabbagerot, bulb-rot of hyacinths, &c., carnation disease-there is evidence that bacteria are causally connected with the disease.
See FUNGI and BACTERIA; also Marshall Ward, Diseases of Plants (Romance of Science Series), S.P.C.K.; Massee, Text-Book of Plant Diseases (1899); Tubeuf, Diseases of Plants (London, 1897).
The only evidence we have in pathology of living structures in which apparently a differentiation into cell-body and nucleus does not exist, is in the case of bacteria, but then there comes the question whether they may not possess chromatin distributed through their substance, in the form of metachromatic points, as is the case in some infusoria (Trachelocerca, Gruber).
The irritants may be bacteria and their toxins, or they may be mechanical, chemical or thermic.
At the same time large numbers of these cells perish in the struggle, but even the death of these cells is of value to the body, as in the process of breaking down there are set free ferments which not only act detrimentally to the bacteria, but also may stimulate the bringing forward of another form of cell defenders - the mononuclear leucocyte.
They surround individual bacteria, absorb them into their substance, and ultimately destroy them by digestion.
The Nucleus.The nucleus has been demonstrated in all plants with the exception of the Cyanophyceae and Bacteria, and even.
The reduction of sulphates to sulphides by means of organic matter, probably through the agency of sulphur-bacteria, may also indirectly furnish sulphur, and hence it is frequently found in deposits of gypsum.
The steps in the breaking down of the highly complex nitrogenous proteid compounds contained in the humus of the soil, or applied to the latter by the farmer in the form of dung and organic refuse generally, are many and varied; most frequently the insoluble proteids are changed by various kinds of putrefactive bacteria into soluble proteids (peptones, &c.), these into simpler amido-bodies, and these again sooner or later into compounds of ammonia.
Many bacteria are known which are capable of denitrification, some of them being abundant in fresh dung and upon old straw.
Vol ut-in occurs in the cytoplasm of various Fungi, Bacteria, Cyanophyceae, diatoms, &c., in the form of minute granules which have a characteristic reaction towards methylene blue (Meyer).
The study of marine life has in recent years become more general, and has become associated with very precise investigations into the chemical composition of sea-water, changes in chemical equilibrium, the effect of variations in salinity and temperature, the processes set up by marine bacteria, and so on.
This acquired immunity is brought about by the development of a protective body as a result of the struggle of the cells and fluids of the body with the invading bacteria and their toxins.
Many cancer-parasites have been described in cancerous growths, including bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, but the innumerable attempts made to demonstrate the causal infective organism have all completely failed.
The phagocytes are attracted from the blood vessels and elsewhere towards the noxious focus by the chemiotaxis exerted upon them by the toxins secreted by the bacteria contained within it.
The chemiotaxis in this instance is positive, but the toxins from certain other bacteria may act negatively; and such bacteria are fraught with particular danger from the fact that they can spread through the body unopposed by the phagocytes, which may be looked upon as their natural enemies.
Not only are the secreted juices of specialized cells thus set one against another in the body, whereby the various organs of the body maintain a mutual play, but the blood itself also in its cellular and fluid parts contains elements potent in the destruction of bacteria and of their secretions.
At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
Having found that some of the commonest diseases of beer, such as yeast turbidity and the objectionable changes in flavour, were caused not by bacteria but by certain species of yeast, and, further, that different species of good brewery yeast would produce beers of different character, Hansen argued that the pitching yeast should consist only of a single species - namely, that best suited to the brewery in question.
Observed originally by Engelmann in bacteria, by Stahl in myxomycetes, and by Pfeffer in ferns, mosses, &c., it has now become recognized as a widespread phenomenon.
Given a noxious agent in a tissue, such, let us say, as a localized deposit of certain bacteria, the phagocytes swarm towards the locality where the bacteria have taken up their residence.
The beginning of definite knowledge on the phenomenon of fermentation may be dated from the time of Antony Leeuwenhoek, who in 1680 designed a microscope sufficiently powerful to render yeast cells and bacteria visible; and a description of these organisms, accompanied by diagrams, was sent to the Royal Society of London.
Pasteur first formulated the idea that bacteria are responsible for the diseases of fermented liquids; the corollary of this was a demand for pure yeast.
This discovery was of great importance to the zymo-technical industries, for it showed that bacteria are not the only undesirable organisms which may occur in yeast.
Boracic acid receives no mention here; though it is popularly known as an antiseptic, it is in reality only a soothing fluid, and bacteria will flourish comfortably in contact with it.
Some bacteria, such as those of anthrax, are seized upon in the same manner, indeed; very much as small algae and other particles are incorporated and devoured by amoeba.
In the first stage the ammonium compounds are oxidized to nitrites by the agency of very minute motile bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas.
The further oxidation of the nitrite to a nitrate is effected by bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter.
About this time Hansen, who had long been engaged in researches on the biology of the fungi of fermentation, demonstrated that yeast free from bacteria could nevertheless occasion diseases in beer.
The bacteria, in most cases, have no definite nucleus or central body.
In many low organisms, such as the spores of bacteria, the thick, non-conducting wall may preserve the living protoplasm from subjection to external temperatures below freezing point, or above boiling point, but all the evidence goes to show that applications of such cold or heat, if prolonged or arranged so as to penetrate to the living matter, destroy life.
Undergo decomposition in the soil and become broken down into compounds of simple chemical composition better suited for absorption by the roots of crops, the changes involved being directly due to the activity of bacteria and fungi.
Mechanical injury from without, and against the entry of smaller parasites, such as fungi and bacteria, but also and especially to prevent the evaporation of water from within.
The rod-like bodies from the intenor of the tube, which has considerable resemblance to the zoogloea of many Bacteria, are liberated into the interior of the cells of the tubercle and fill it, increasing by a process of branching and fission.
The processes of putrefaction may be alluded to as affording an instance of such a power in the vegetable organisms. At the same time it must be remembered that the secretion of enzymes by Bacteria is of widespread occurrence.
Flux.A common event in the exudation of turbid, frothing liquids from wounds in the bark of trees, and the odours of putrefaction and even alcoholic fermentation in these are sufficiently explained by the coexistence of albuminous and saccharine matters with fungi, yeasts and bacteria in such fluxes.
Bacteriosis.Many of the plant diseases involving rot have been ascribed to the action of bacteria, and in some casese.g.
The relative abundance of nitrates and nitrites at the bottom of deep oceans as compared with the surface can be explained in the same way, for at the bottom the temperature is about zero Centigrade and the activities of the denitrifying bacteria are practically suspended.
Wright and others, in recent work on opsonins, have shown that, by injecting dead cultures of the causal agent into subjects infected with the organism, there is produced in the body fluids a substance (opsonin) which apparently in favourable conditions unites with the living causal bacteria and so sensitizes them that they are readily taken up and destroyed by the phagocytic cells of tissues.
Not only is the influence of bacteria in the causation of many of them newly revealed, but it is now recognized also that, even in skin diseases not initiated by microbic action, microbes play a considerable and often a determining part in their perpetuation; and that the rules of modern aseptic surgery are applicable with no little success to skin therapeutics.
These end-organs are the active agents in taking up foreign granules, or bacteria, which may have found their way into the fluid of the body-cavity.
In early inquiries a great point was made of the prevention of putrefaction, and work was done in the way of finding how much of an agent must be added to a given solution, in order that the bacteria accidentally present might not develop. But for various reasons this was an inexact method, and to-day an antiseptic is judged by its effects on pure cultures of definite pathogenic microbes, and on their vegetative and spore forms. Their standardization has been effected in many instances, and a water solution of carbolic acid of a certain fixed 'strength is now taken as the standard with which other antiseptics are compared.
The study of phylogeny has suggested fourteen classes arranged in the following sequence: (1) Bacteria; (2) Cyanophyceae (Blue-green algae); (3) Flagellatae; (4) Myxomycetes (Slime-fungi); (5) Pendineae; (6) Conjugatae; (7) Diatomaceae (Diatoms); (8) Fleteroconteae; (9) Chlorophyceae (Green Algae); (10) Characeae (Stoneworts); (II) Rhodophyceae (Red Algae); (12) Eumycetes (Fungi);
It is not sufficient to find bacteria in the rotting tissues, however, nor even to be successful in infecting the plant through an artificial wound, unless very special and critical precautions are taken, and in many of the alleged cases of bacteriosis the saprophytic bacteria in the tissues are to be regarded as merely secondary agents.