B, a pair of bacilli actively growing and dividing.
- Tubercle bacilli in tissues from human lung in a case of acute phthisis.
The supposed Micrococci present little that is characteristic; the more definite, rod-like form of the Bacilli offers a better means of recognition, though far from an infallible one; in a few cases dark granules, suggestive of endospores, have been found within the rods.
By making very thin sections and employing high magnification (1000-1200 diameters), Renault has been enabled to detect numerous forms of bacilli in the woody parts preserved in coal, one of which, Micrococcus carbo, bears a strong resemblance to the living Cladothrix found in trees buried in peat bogs.
By treating milk at a temperature of 60° C. for one hour, 70° C. for ten minutes, and 95° C. for one minute, tubercle bacilli, if present, will certainly be killed.
Cholera and typhoid organisms are less resistant, and are killed more quickly than tubercle bacilli at the above temperatures.
In other cases gall-stones set up irritation in the gall-bladder which runs on to inflammation, and the gall-bladder being infected by septic germs from the intestine (bacilli coli) an abscess forms.
From the fact that bacilli are hardly ever found in the blood of bubonic cases it may be inferred that they are arrested by the lymphatic glands next above the seat of inoculation, and that the fight - which is the illness - takes place largely in the bubo; in non-bubonic cases they are not so arrested, and the fight takes place in the general circulatory system, or in the lungs.
He demonstrated the presence of the bacilli in the sputa, and showed that the inflammation in the lungs was set up by primary plague infection.
In the vast majority of cases the bacilli are in the lymphatic or the circulatory system, and aerial convection, even for a short distance, seems highly improbable.
(2) A flea can retain the plague bacilli alive for seven or eight days.
Thus if a little diphtheritic sputum were coughed into a person's eye, or some blood containing anthrax bacilli were to touch a raw spot upon the hand, the removal of microbes in either case by washing with simple water might be regarded as a means of passive defence, whilst washing them away with an antiseptic lotion might be regarded as active defence, because the antiseptic would tend not only to remove but to destroy the microbes.
Weir Mitchell and others have shown that serpent venom consists chiefly of albumoses, and the toxins formed by infective bacilli have a somewhat similar chemical nature.
By growing this bacillus in broth a toxin is formed which remains in solution and can be separated from the bacilli themselves by filtration.
In one, Haffkine employs the toxins obtained by growing plague bacilli in broth for five or six weeks, and then heating the whole to 65° or 70° C. so as to destroy the bacilli.
In the same way sterilized cultures of typhoid bacilli have been used to protect against attacks of typhoid fever, and an anti-typhoid serum has been employed with intent to cure.
The lactic acid bacilli are given either in the form of tablets or milk soured by them, or cheese made from the sour milk.
Biting and sucking insects have been found to carry the bacilli from one plant to another.
" microbes," " micro-organisms," " microphytes," " bacilli," " micrococci."
He proceeded in the main on the assumption that the forms of bacteria as met with and described by him are practically constant, at any rate within limits which are not wide: observing that a minute spherical micrococcus or a rod-like bacillus regularly produced similar micrococci and bacilli respectively, he based his classification on what may be considered the constancy of forms which he called species and genera.
Rayer in 1850 and Davaine had observed the bacilli in the blood of animals dead of anthrax (splenic fever), and Pollender discovered them anew in 1855 In 1863, imbued with ideas derived from Pasteur's researches on fermentation, Davaine reinvestigated the matter, and put forth the opinion that the anthrax bacilli caused the splenic fever; this was proved to result from inoculation.
Koch in 1876 published his observations on Davaine's bacilli, placed beyond doubt their causal relation to splenic fever, discovered the spores and the saprophytic phase in the life-history of the organism, and cleared up important points in the whole question (figs.
More remarkable still, animals inoculated with such " attenuated " bacilli proved to be curiously resistant to the deadly effects of subsequent inoculations of the non-attenuated form.
Ravenel, Macfadyen and Rowland have shown that several bacilli will bear exposure for seven days to the temperature of liquid air (- 192° C. to - 183° C.) and again grow when put into normal conditions.
For this purpose Koch ground up tubercle bacilli in an agate mortar and treated them with distilled water until practically no deposit remained.
Rowland and Macfadyen for the same purpose introduced the method of grinding the bacilli in liquid air.
The fact that in anthrax, one of the first diseases to be fully studied, numerous bacilli are present in the blood of infected animals, gave origin to the idea that the organisms might produce their effect by using up the oxygen g ' P Y g P Yg of the blood.
In the case of the tetanus and diphtheria bacilli, the production of soluble toxins can be readily demonstrated by filtering a culture in bouillon germ-free by means of a porcelain filter, and then injecting some of the filtrate into an animal.
Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.
Even yet medical science has not determined the effect upon the human system of water highly charged with bacteria which are not known to be individually pathogenic. In the case of the bacilli of typhoid and cholera, we know the direct effect; but apart altogether from the presence of such specific poisons, polluted water is undoubtedly injurious.
With regard to the bacillary type, at first both organisms were considered to be identical, and the name bacillus dysenteriae was given to them; but later it was shown that these bacilli are different, both in regard to their cultural characteristics and also in that one (Shiga) gives out a soluble toxin, whilst the other has so far resisted all efforts to discover it.
The remains then change to buff colour, afterwards turning brown, when decomposition sets in, and as the bacilli present in the dead larvae increase and the nutrient matter is consumed, the mass in some cases becomes sticky and ropy in character, making its removal impossible by the bees.
The two bacilli are antagonistic, each striving for supremacy, first one then the other predominating.
It should be " a place for everything and everything in its place " prepares the bee-keeper for any emergency; constant watchfulness is also necessary, not only to guard against disease in needs a reminder of this truism he surely has it in the borne in mind that the disease is much easier to cure in the earlier stages while the bacilli are still rod-shaped than when the rods have turned to spores.
The only animal life reported from the lake has been some tetanus and other bacilli said to have been found in its mud; but this discovery has not been confirmed.
The infection of rats and mice with disease bacilli, or of locusts with insect-killing Fungi, and signs of the successful carrying out of such measures are not wanting.