ERESHKIGAL, also known as Allatu, the name of the chief Babylonian goddess of the nether-world where the dead are gathered.
The Babylonian and Assyrian Sabbath.
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
A little south of Samarra are found remains of the Median Wall, which stretched south-west towards the Euphrates near Sahlawych, marking the edge of the Babylonian alluvial plain.
Here they had their own lands, and some form of local government by elders, and appear to have been prosperous and contented; probably the only demand made on them by the Babylonian government was the payment of taxes.
18), had his own house, and comported himself quietly as a Babylonian subject.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
At the corner stood the residence of the Babylonian governor, near the site upon which King Herod afterwards built his magnificent palace.
So, again, the Babylonian Berossus, shortly after Alexander.
The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
The significance of seven throughout Babylonian literature is very marked, and most of the material has been collected by J.
This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.
Such business as did not profane the Sabbath according to Babylonian ideas cannot be quoted against their observance of their Sabbath.
In the course of centuries, however, they were absorbed into the Babylonian population; the kings adopted Semitic names and married into the royal family of Assyria.
Some of the Kassite deities were introduced into the Babylonian pantheon, and the Kassite tribe of Khabira seems to have settled in the Babylonian plain.
We find in the Babylonian-Assyrian omen-texts special designations for the three main lobes of the sheep's liver - the lobus dexter, the lobus sinister and the lobus caudatus; the first-named being called "the right wing of the liver," the second "the left wing of the liver," and the third "the middle of the liver."
Whether the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions - (i) lobus dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical nomenclature - was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two sections - the fossa venae umbilicalis - was recognized and distinguished by the designation of "river of the liver."
Divination through the liver remained in force among the Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian Empire.
The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive.
The discovery of the now celebrated Code of Khammurabi (Hammurabi)' (hereinafter simply termed 1 For the transliteration of Babylonian and Assyrian names generally, see Babylonia And Assyria, section ix., Proper Names.
The law and custom which preceded the Code we shall call " early," that of the New Babylonian empire (as well as the Persian, Greek, &c.) " late.
As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.
Radau, Early Babylonian History (New York, 1900); C. H.
Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (Edinburgh, 1904).
The earliest settlement there goes back to neolithic times, but it was already a fortified city when Elam was conquered by Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.) and Susa became the seat of a Babylonian viceroy.
A list of the Elamite deities is given by Assur-bani-pal; at the head of them was In-Susinak, "the lord of the Susians," - a title which went back to the age of Babylonian suzerainty, - whose image and oracle were hidden from the eyes of the profane.
In the Babylonian Talmud (Babhli) there is no gemara to the smaller tractates of Order r, and to parts of ii., iv., v., vi.
1106), who was indirectly indebted to Babylonian teaching.
Half a day's journey beyond, at a point where two great wadis enter the Euphrates, on the Syrian side, stands Jabriya, an unidentified ruined town of Babylonian type, with walls of unbaked brick, instead of the stone heretofore encountered.
`Ana itself, a very ancient town, of Babylonian origin, once sacred probably to the goddess of the same name, lay originally on several islands in the stream, where ruins, principally of the Arabic and late Persian period, are visible.
Here palm trees, which had begun to appear singly at Deir, grow in large groves, the olive disappears entirely, and we have definitely passed over from the Syrian to the Babylonian, flora and climate.
The seven powers which create and rule the world are without doubt the seven planetary deities of the later Babylonian religion.
If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.
The syncretism of the Babylonian and the Persian religion was also the nursing-ground of Gnosticism.
The Tell el-Amarna despatches are crowded with evidences of Canaanite forms and idioms impressed on the Babylonian language of these cuneiform documents.
The effects of Babylonian culture in western Asia on Israel and Israel's religion in early times even preceding the advent of Moses.
The great influence exercised by Babylonian culture over Palestine between 2000 and 1400 B.C. (circa), which has been clearly revealed to us since 1887 by the discovery of the Tell el Amarna tablets, is now universally acknowledged.
The subsequent discovery of a document written in Babylonian cuneiform at Lachish (Tell el Hesy), and more recently still of another in the excavations at Ta`annek, have established the fact beyond all dispute.
Delitzsch, Jeremias (Monotheistische Stromungen) and Baentsch, that monotheistic tendencies are to be found in the midst of Babylonian polytheism.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
Also Mount Nebo, which was a place-name both in Moab and in Judah, and naturally connects itself with the name of the Babylonian deity).
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
A remarkable Babylonian tablet discovered by Dr Pinches represents Marduk, the god of light, as identified in his person with all the chief deities of Babylonia, who are evidently regarded as his varying manifestations.'
To the original nomadic Pesah (Passover) - sacrifice of a lamb - there was attached a distinct and agricultural festival of unleavened cakes (ynassoth) which marks the beginning of the corn harvest in the middle of the month Abib (the name of which points to its Canaanite and 1 The tablet is neo-Babylonian and published by Dr Pinches in the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, and is cited by Professor Fried.
Thus began the seventy years "Babylonian captivity of the Church."
The kadishtu of the temples of the Babylonian Ishtar) were foreign Canaanite elements which became imported into Hebrew worship during the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan.