Alexander returns to Babylon, is crowned with much pomp and mass is celebrated.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Alexander died at Babylon in 323 B.C., and the fleet was dispersed without making the voyage.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
When Alexander had won the victory of Arbela, and occupied Babylon and Susa, he met (in the spring of 330) with strong resistance in Persia, where the satrap Ariobarzanes tried to stop his progress at the "Persian gates," the pass leading up to Persepolis.
Susa once more became a capital, and on the establishment of the Persian empire remained one of the three seats of government, its language, the Neo-Susian, ranking with the Persian of Persepolis and the Semitic of Babylon as an official tongue.
The right arm was the original bed, and the left arm, on which Babylon was built, the artificial deviation, as is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions.
The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); W.
ABEDNEGO, the name given in Babylon to Azariah, one of the companions of Daniel.
But when tradition preserves some recollection of an offence for which Manasseh was taken to Babylon to explain his conduct (2 Chron.
His sons were slain before his eyes, and he himself was blinded and carried off to Babylon after a reign of eleven years.
3-9, where the two brothers carried off to Egypt and Babylon respectively would seem to be Jehoahaz and his nephew Jehoiachin).
The prophets who had marked in the past the advent of Assyrians and Chaldeans now fixed their eyes upon the advance of Cyrus, confident that the fall of Babylon would bring the restoration of their fortunes.
The poetic imagery in which the prophets clothed the doom of Babylon, like the romantic account of Herodotus (i.
Cyrus on entering Babylon had even restored the gods to the cities to which they belonged.
Epiphanius (Vitae prophetarum) says that he came up from Babylon while still young, prophesied the return, witnessed the building of the temple and received an honoured burial near the priests.
Such a remnant, amongst whom might be members of the priestly and royal families, would gather strength and boldness as the troubles of Babylon See the note on Ps.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
It was, however, reserved for the genius of Khammurabi to make Babylon his metropolis and weld together his vast empire by a uniform system of law.
In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
Winckler, " Die Gesetze Hammurabis Kiinigs von Babylon urn 2250 v.
Harper, The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B.C. (Chicago, 1904); S.
2 The centralizing of worship at Babylon by its last king, Nabonidos, hardly seems to have amounted to monotheism.
Babylonia was politically unsettled, the representative of the Davidic dynasty had descendants; if Babylon was assured of the allegiance of Judah further acts of clemency may well have followed.
Is against any previous large return from Babylon, and clearly illustrates the strength of the groups of " southern " origin whose presence is only to be expected (p. 285).
What book Ezra really brought from Babylon is uncertain; the writer, it seems, is merely narrating the introduction of the Law ascribed to Moses, even as a predecessor has recounted the discovery of the Book of the Law, the Deuteronomic code subsequently included in the Pentateuch.
The importance which the biblical writers attach to the return from Babylon in the reign of Artaxerxes forms a starting-point for several interesting inquiries.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes) which waxed exceeding great towards the south (Egypt) and towards the East (Babylon) and towards the beauteous land (the land of Israel)."
Manda d'hayye and his image Hibil Ziva with his incarnations clearly correspond to the old Babylonian Marduk, Merodach, the "first-born" son of Ea, with his incarnations, the chief divinity of the city of Babylon, the mediator and redeemer in the old religion.
His return to Babylon in that year was afterwards officially regarded as the beginning of the Seleucid empire.
When the Macedonian empire was divided in 323 (the "Partition of Babylon") Seleucus was given the office of chiliarch (Gr.
And Cambyses I., "kings of Anshan," and the same title is given to him in the inscriptions and in the chronicle of Nabonidus of Babylon before his victory over Astyages.
Soon after the conquest of the Median empire, Cyrus was attacked by a coalition of the other powers of the East, Babylon, Egypt and Lydia, joined by Sparta, the greatest military power of Greece.
The army of Nabonidus was defeated; Babylon itself attempted no resistance, but surrendered on the 16th Tishri (loth of October) 539, to the Persian general Gobryas (Gaubaruva, see the chronicle of the reign of Nabonidus; the name Gobryas is preserved also by Xenophon, Cyrop. vii.
February 528; for in Babylon the first year of Cyrus began in the spring of 538.
Assyria, being essentially a military power, disappeared with the destruction of Nineveh, but Babylon continued to exercise an influence on culture and religion for many centuries after the Persian conquest.
They destroyed Nineveh in alliance with the Babylonians, and half a century later Cyrus took Babylon and founded the great dynasty of the Achaemenidae.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
Babylon long continued to be a Jewish centre whence the Jews radiated to other countries.