To this Baal the productiveness of the soil was due.
As the female counterpart of the Phoenician Baal (viewed as a sun-god), and on the testimony of late writers (Lucian, Herodian) that she was represented with horns, the place-name AshterothKarnaim in Gilead ("Ashteroth of the horns") has been considered ample proof in favour of the theory.
She is everywhere the great female principle, answering to the Baal of the Canaanites and Phoenicians 2 and to the Dagon of the Philistines.
Of this tradition the Naboth incident in the time of Ahab furnishes a clear example which brings to light the contrast between the Tyrian Baal-cult, which was scarcely ethical, and of which Jezebel and Ahab were devotees, and the moral requirements of the religion of Yahweh of which Elijah was the prophet and impassioned exponent.
Accordingly, whenever His presence and power were displayed in places where the Canaanite Baal had been worshipped, they came to be attached to these spots.
Power and presence (numen) there, and the same festivals and sacrifices which had previously been devoted to the cult of the Canaanite Baal were now annexed to the service of Yahweh, the war-god of the conquering race.
The process of transference was facilitated by two potent causes: (a) Both Canaanite and Hebrew spoke a common language; (b) the name Baal is not in reality an individual proper name like Kemosh (Chemosh), Ramman or Hadad, but is, like El (Ilu)" god," an appellative meaning " lord," " owner " or " husband."
The name Baal might therefore be used for any deity such as Milk (Milcom) or Shemesh (" sun ") who was the divine owner of the spot.
In this way Yahweh came to be called the Baal or " lord " of any sacred place where the armies of Israel by their victories attested " his mighty hand and outstretched arm."
For when Yahweh gradually became Israel's local Baal he became worshipped like the old Canaanite deity, and all the sensuous accompaniments of Kedeshoth,' as well as the presence of the asherah or sacred pole, became attached to his cult.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
Even in the days of Hosea the rivalry between Yahweh and the old Canaanite Baal still continued.
Israel) the corn, the new wine and the oil, and have bestowed on her silver and gold in abundance which they have wrought into a Baal image " (Hos.
Probably there was little externally to distinguish the prophet of Yahweh in the days of Samuel from the CanaanitePhoenician prophets of Baal and Asherah (1 Kings xviii.
Israel's faithlessness is shown in idolatry and the prevailing corruption of the high places in which the old Canaanite Baal was worshipped instead of Yahweh.
18), of stone pillars to the Canaanite Baal, of the Asherah-pole, molten images and the worship of other gods than Yahweh (Ex.
The Phoenician parallel of " Face of Baal," worshipped as Tanit, "queen of Heaven " (Bathgen, Beitrage zur Semit.
Baal Zebub of the Philistine Ekron became the Beelzebub who was equivalent to Satan.
A Phoenician dedication to "Baal of Lebanon" found here, and dated also to the 7th century, suggests that Citium may have belonged to Tyre.
The cult of the Baal of Tyre followed Jezebel to the royal city Samaria and even found its way into Jerusalem.
The conflict between Yahweh and Baal and the defeat of the latter are the characteristic notes of the religious history of the period, and they leave their impression upon the records, which are now more abundant.
The worship of Baal of Tyre roused a small circle of zealots, and again the Phoenician marriage was the cause of the evil.
The Baal of Tyre) is as intelligible as a tendency to look to Aramaean neighbours.
Another deity whose name occurs in votive inscriptions, is Baal-shamim, i.e.
Besides the local Baal there were " the god of heaven" (El) and other deities; human sacrifices as a means of propitiating the divine wrath were not uncommon.
BAAL, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner or inhabitant,' and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated to express the relation of a husband to his wife and of the deity to his worshipper.
"the Baal"; and the baals of different tribes or sanctuaries were not necessarily conceived as identical, so that we find frequent mention of Baalim, or rather "the Baalim" in the plural.
That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.
(God) was regarded as equivalent to Baal; cf.
Also the name Be`aliah, "Yahweh is baal or lord," which survives in 1 Chron.
The great difficulty which has been felt by investigators in determining the character and attributes of the god Baal mainly arises from the original.
Baal being originally a title, and not a proper name, the innumerable baals could be distinguished by the addition of the name of a place or of some special attribute.
Each community could speak of its own baal, although a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated.
He is the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the "uncontrolled use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the god of the productive element in its widest sense.
9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, &c., are frequent; see G.
Baal-berith or El-berith of Shechem (Judg.
4, 46) is usually interpreted to be the Baal or God of the covenant, but whether of covenants in general or of a particular covenant concluded at Shechem is disputed.
On the "Baal of flies" see Beelzebub.
Of baal), her real name not being pronounced (perhaps out of reverence).
Consequently, the Baal could be identified with some supreme power of nature, e.g.
The particular line of development would vary in different places, but the change from an association of the Baal with earthly objects to heavenly is characteristic of a higher type of belief and appears to be relatively later.
The idea which has long prevailed that Baal was properly a sky-god affords no explanation of the local character of the many baals; on the other hand, on the theory of a higher development where the gods become heavenly or astral beings, the fact that ruder conceptions of nature were still retained (often in the unofficial but more popular forms of cult) is more intelligible.
A specific Baal of the heavens appears to have been known among the Hittites in the time of Rameses II., and considerably later, at the beginning of the 7th century, it was the title of one of the gods of Phoenicia.
In Babylonia, from a very early period, Baal became a definite individual deity, and was identified with the planet Jupiter.
Both Baal and Astarte were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and Memphis in the XIXth Dynasty, and the former, through the influence of the Aramaeans who borrowed the Babylonian spelling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Belos who was identified with Zeus.
Of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards.
The worship of the Tyrian Baal was carried to all the Phoenician colonies.'
His name occurs as an element in Carthaginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c.), and a tablet found at Marseilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the priests of the temple of Baal for offering sacrifices.
16 seq.) a further advance was marked, and the use of the term "Baal" was felt to be dangerous to true religion.
The city was occupied by Ahab, who here built a temple to "Baal" (i Kings xvi.
Now the local Baal was the divine owner of the fertile spot where his sanctuary (0 - desk) was marked by the upright stone pillar, the symbol of his presence, on which the blood of the slaughtered victim was smeared.