ANGRA, or Angra Do Heroismo ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and Graciosa.
Towards its northern end the ridge widens and rises to the plateau of the Azores, and in about 50° N.
Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
It includes the Azores and Canaries, the Mediterranean basin, northern Africa as far as the Atlas and Sahara, Asia Minor, Persia and the countries eastward as far as Sind, being bounded to the north by the mountains which run from the Caucasus to the Hindu-Kush.
Their missionaries were received at the court of Akbar, and Benedict Goes, a native of the Azores, was despatched on a journey overland from Agra to China.
The islands of the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores belong to the Mediterranean province, and offer some peculiarities of great interest.
The Azores have been monographed by F.
Of the Azores or Western Islands, London, 1870).
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
So threatening were the symptoms that the royalists at Paris and the plenipotentiaries at Vienna talked of deporting him to the Azores, while others more than hinted at assassination.
The work was entrusted to Martin Behaim, who had resided for six years in Portugal and the Azores, and was believed to be a thoroughly qualified cosmographer.
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
He adopted a plan which had been organiza- found to succeed well in Madeira and the Azores, tion in dividing the country into hereditary captaincies, and Sao Vicente Piratininga, in the present province of Sao Paulo.
In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.
Higher than in the Irminger Sea; hence the sea-level near the Azores is almost 1 ft.
Continuing southwards the rise joins the Azores Plateau, which has in parts a very marked relief, and runs thence southward almost exactly in the middle of the ocean, becoming gradually lower as it goes.
With a depth of 4030 fathoms. The Eastern Atlantic Trough cannot boast of such great depths though the Peake Deep with 3284 fathoms sinks abruptly from the Azores Plateau in 43° 9' N., 1 9° 45' W., and several soundings exceeding 2700 fathoms have been obtained in the Bay of Biscay east of the meridian of 5° E.
These shells do not retain their individuality at depths greater than 1400 or 1500 fathoms, and in fact pteropod ooze is only found in small patches on the ridges near the Azores, Antilles, Canaries, Sokotra, Nicobar, Fiji and the Paumotu islands, and on the central rise of the South Atlantic between Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha.
In the North Atlantic a strong submarine current flowing outward from the Mediterranean leaves the Strait of Gibraltar with a salinity of 38 per mille, and can be traced as far as Madeira and the Bay of Biscay in depths of from 600 to 2800 fathoms, still with a salinity of 35.6 per mille, whereas off the Azores at equal depths the salinity is from 0.5 to 0.7 per mille less.
A cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere is associated with a cyclonic circulation of the water of the ocean, as is well shown in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic between the Azores and Greenland.
What prosperity or stability remains in various Cape Cod communities is largely due to foreign immigrants-especially BritishAmericans and Portuguese from the Azores; although the population remains, to a degree exceptional in northern states, of native stock.
The pope drew a line from north to south one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands, and gave the Spaniards the claim to all to the west (May 4, 1493).
Azorica (a native of the Azores) with purple, ultimately blue flowers about half an inch across, has a similar habit but larger flowers; M.
In many parts of south-eastern Asia, in Mauritius, in North and South Africa, in Madagascar, in the Azores, it has become thoroughly acclimatized, and successfully competes with the indigenous fresh-water fishes.
Domesticated goats have run wild in many islands, such as the Hebrides, Shetland, Canaries, Azores, Ascension and Juan Fernandez.
In the Azores the horns are remarkably upright and straight, whence the name of "antelopegoat" which has been given to these animals.
Porto Alegre was founded in 1743 by immigrants from the Azores and was at first known as Porto dos Cazaes.
In 1877 arrangements were made for the importation of Portuguese families from the Azores and Madeira, and during the next ten years about 7000 of these people were brought to the islands; in 1906-1907 there was a second immigration from the Azores and Madeira of 1325 people.
A very distinct species (P. murina), remarkable for its dull coloration, is peculiar to the Azores, and several others are found in Asia from the Himalayas to Japan.
The Canary (Serinus canaries) is indigenous to the islands whence it takes its name, as well, apparently, as to the neighbouring groups of the Madeiras and Azores, in all of which it abounds.
St Mary is the southernmost and easternmost of the Azores, lying south of the larger island .of St Michael's, through the medium of which its trade is conducted, as it has no good harbours of its own.
Of the group. The islands rise from the submarine elevation which runs down the centre of the Atlantic and on which are likewise situated Ascension, St Paul's Rocks and the Azores; the average depth on this ridge is from 1600 to 1700 fathoms, while depths of 3000 fathoms are found on each side of it.
As the Spaniards had not yet occupied the Azores he sailed to them, but was utterly defeated at sea by the marquis of Santa Cruz off Saint Michael's on the 27th of July 1582.
In 1427, again, with the co-operation of his father King John, he seems to have sent out the royal pilot Diogo de Sevill, followed in 1431 by Goncalo Velho Cabral, to explore the Azores, first mentioned and depicted in a Spanish treatise of 1345 (the Conosrimiento de todos los Reynos) and in an Italian map of 1351 (the Laurentian Portolano, also the first cartographical work to give us the Madeiras with modern names), but probably almost unvisited from that time to the advent of Sevill.
In 1444, moreover, the island of St Michael in the Azores was sighted (May 8), and in 1445 its colonization was begun.
After this the chief matters worth notice in Dom Henry's life are, first, the progress of discovery and colonization in the Azores - where Terceira was discovered before 1450, perhaps in 1445, and apparently by a Fleming, called "Jacques de Bruges" in the prince's charter of the 2nd of March 1450 (by this charter Jacques receives the captaincy of this isle as its intending colonizer); secondly, the rapid progress of civilization in Madeira, evidenced by its timber trade to Portugal, by its sugar, corn and honey, and above all by its wine, produced from the Malvoisie or Malmsey grape, introduced from Crete; and thirdly, the explorations o Cadamosto and Diogo Gomez.
For his work, and on which he bestowed many privileges in the new-won lands - the tithes of St Michael in the Azores and onehalf of its sugar revenues, the tithe of all merchandise from Guinea, the ecclesiastical dues of Madeira, &c. As "protector of Portuguese studies," Dom Henry is credited with having founded a professorship of theology, and perhaps also chairs of mathematics and medicine, in Lisbon - where also, in 1431, he is said to have provided house-room for the university teachers and students.
It is only occasionally found near the shore; its real home is the Atlantic, especially near Madeira and the Azores, but many captures are recorded from Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; it strays as far north as Iceland and Newfoundland, and probably southwards to the latitudes of the coast of Guinea.
The raid on Cadiz under Essex and Raleigh in 1596 was attended with better results, but the Islands voyage to the Azores in 1597 was a very partial success.
She afterwards made her way to the Azores, where she received her armament, which was brought from Liverpool in two British ships.
The prosperity it retains is not a little due to Portuguese from the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores, and to British Americans.