He accompanied his uncle Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in 1867.
He accompanied the sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his journey to Egypt and Europe, when the freedom of the city of London was conferred on him.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
Abd-ul-Aziz, however, with the aid of British naval officers, succeeded in creating an imposing fleet of ironclads constructed in English and French yards.
The new sultan's reign marked, if not the beginning, at least the high tide Aba-ui-Aziz, o f that course of improvident and unrestrained 1861-1876.
Abd-ul-Aziz is said to have yielded the more readily as being desirous of bringing about a similar alteration in the succession in Turkey, in favour of his own eldest son, Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din; public opinion was, however, opposed to so sweeping a change, and the succession to the throne in Turkey still goes to the eldest surviving member of the house of Osman.
Abd-ul-Aziz had visited the Paris Exhibition of 1867 and had paid his respects to Queen Victoria, who conferred on him the order of the Garter.
In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
His son and successor, Abdul Aziz, in a rapid series of successful campaigns, extended his dominion and that of the reformed faith far beyond the limits of Nejd.
In 1801 Saud, son of the amir Abdul Aziz, led an expedition to the Euphrates, and on the festival of Bairam, the 10th of April, stormed Kerbela, put the defenders to the sword, destroyed the sacred tomb, scattered the sacred relics and returned laden with the treasures, accumulated during centuries in the sanctuary of the Shia faith.
On the 14th of October 1802 the amir Abdul Aziz, at the age of eighty-two years, was murdered by a Shia fanatic when at prayers in the mosque of Deraiya, and Salad, who had for many years led the Wahhabi armies, became the reigning amir.
On his death in 1897 his nephew Abdul-Aziz, son of the murdered amir Matab, succeeded; during his reign a new element has been introduced into Nejd politics by the rising importance of Kuwet (Koweit) and the attempts R t g P () P history.
The head of the Mevlevi dervishes (Aziz-Effendi, HazretiMevlana, Mollah-Unkiar, commonly styled simply ChelebiEffendi) has the right to gird on the sultan's sword at his investiture, and is master of the considerable revenues of the greatest religious establishment in the empire.
Arabraces), a town of Turkey in Asia in the Mamuret el-Aziz or Kharput vilayet, situated near the confluence of the eastern and western Euphrates, but some miles from the right bank of the combined streams. Pop. about 20,000, of which the larger half is Mussulman.
KHARPUT, the most important town in the Kharput (or Mamuret el-Aziz) vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at an altitude of 435 o ft., a few miles south of the Murad Su or Eastern Euphrates, and almost as near the source of the Tigris, on the SamsunSivas-Diarbekr road.
The Nischan-i-Osmanie, the Osmanieh, for civil and military merit, was founded by Abdul Aziz in 1862; it has four classes.
ABD-UL-AZIZ (1830-1876), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan Mahmud II., was born on the 9th of February 1830, and succeeded his brother Abd-ul-Mejid in 1861.
Abd-ul-Aziz visited Europe in 1867, being the first Ottoman sultan to do so, and was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria.
The mis-government and financial straits of the country brought on the outbreak of Mussulman discontent and fanaticism which eventually culminated in the murder of two consuls at Salonica and in the "Bulgarian atrocities," and cost Abd-ul-Aziz his throne.
He was high in favour with Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz and fell much under the influence of General Ignatiev, the forceful Russian ambassador before the war of 1877-78, his subserviency to Russia earning for him the nickname of "Mahmudoff."
Abdalaziz (Abd al-Aziz) b.
Aziz AbC MansCr Nizar (al-Aziz billgh), 365386 (975-996).
Malik al-Aziz Imgd al-din Othman, 589595 (1193-1198).
Ilakam (Merw~n I.), who had assumed the Caliphate, and the conquerors son Abd al-AzIz was appointed governor.
In the reign cf the second Egyptian Fa~imite Aziz billah, J auhar, who appears to have been cashiered by Moizz, was again employed at the instance of Jacob b.
In August 977 Aziz met the united forces of Aftakin and his Carmathian ally outside Ramleh in Palestine and inflicted a crushing defeat on them, which was followed by the capture of Aftakin; this able officer was taken to Egypt, and honorably treated by the caliph, thereby incurring the jealousy of Jacob b.
Aziz attempted without success to enter into friendly relations with the Buyid ruler of Bagdad, A1/4od addaula, who was disposed to favor the Alids, but caused the claim of the Fatimites to descend from Ali to be publicly refuted.
His successor A b Al-i al-Man~cr, who reigned under the title al-Hakim biamr allcih, came to the throne at the age of eleven, being the son of Aziz by a Christian mother.
The war between the brothers was continued with intervals of peace, duringwhich al-Adil repeatedly changed sides: eventually he with al-AzIz besieged and took Damascus, and sent al-Aflal to Sarkhad, while al-Adil remained in possession of Damascus.
On the death of al-Aziz on the 29tb of November 1198 in consequence of a hunting accident, his infant son Mahommed was raised to the throne with the title Malik al-Man~ur Nd~ir al-din, and his uncle al-Aftjal sent for from Sarkhad to take the post of regent or Atgbeg.
On the part of his Circassian Mamelukes to abdicate (September 20th, 1405), when his brother Abd al-aziz was proclaimed with the title Malik al-Man~ur; after two months this prince was deposed, and Faraj, who had been in hiding, recalled.
Xviii., Tiflis, 1896, with map), the population of the nine Turkish vilayets, Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Kharput (Mamuret-el-Aziz), Diarbekr, Sivas, Aleppo, Adana and Trebizond, was 6,000,000 (Armenians, 913,875, or 15%; other Christians, 632,875, or 11%; and Moslems, 4,453,250, or 74%).
Throughout 1894 the state of the country bordered upon anarchy, and during the winter of 1894-1895 the British government, with lukewarm support from France and Russia, pressed for administrative reforms in the vilayets of Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Sivas, Memuret-el-Aziz (Kharput) and Diarbekr.
Abd-el-Aziz IV >>
The sultan Abdul Aziz, thought unequal to the crisis, was hastily deposed; he was either murdered or led to commit suicide; and insurrection in Bulgaria was stamped out by massacre.
On his death in 1900 the regency ended, and Abd-el-Aziz took the reins of government into his own hands, with an Arab from the south, El Menebhi, for his chief adviser.
His attempt to reorganize the finances by the systematic levy of taxes was hailed with delight, but the government was not strong enough to carry the measures through, and the money which should have been used to pay the taxes was employed to purchase firearms. Thus the benign intentions of Mulai Abdel-Aziz were interpreted as weakness, and Europeans were accused of having spoiled the sultan and of being desirous of spoiling the country.
Such was the condition of things when the news of the Anglo-French Agreement of 1904 came as a blow to Abd-el-Aziz, who had relied on England for support and protection against the inroads of France.
On the advice of Germany he proposed the assembly of an international conference at Algeciras in 1906 to consult upon methods of reform, the sultan's desire being to ensure a condition of affairs which would leave foreigners with no excuse for interference in the control of the country, and would promote its welfare, which Abd-el-Aziz had earnestly desired from his accession to power.
In May 1907 the southern tribes invited Mulai Hafid, an elder brother of Abd-el-Aziz, and viceroy at Marrakesh, to become sultan, and in the following August Hafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual formalities.
In September Abd-el-Aziz arrived at Rabat from Fez and endeavoured to secure the support of the European powers against his brother.