Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
Penrose, Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands (1775); Observations on the Forcible Occupation of Malvinas by the British Government in 1833 (Buenos Ayres, 1833); Reclamacion del Gobierno de las provincias Unidas de la Plata contra el de S.
In South America there are mints at Lima, Santiago, Buenos Ayres and Tegucigalpa.
Many distinguished Portuguese teachers returned from abroad to assist the king at the same time, among them Ayres Barbosa from Salamanca, Andre de Gouveia of the Parisian college of St Barbe, whom Montaigne dubbed " the greatest principal of France," Achilles Estago and Diogo de Teive.
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.