The flowers are generally arranged in terminal or axillary clusters, and are markedly regular with the same number of parts in each series.
The flowers, which are solitary, or rarely in pairs, at the end of slender axillary flower-stalks, are very irregular in form, with five sepals prolonged at the base, and five petals, the lowest one larger than the others and with a spur, in which collects the honey secreted by the spurs of the two adjoining stamens.
Arising as a long tendon from the sterno-scapular ligament, it passes the axilla by means of a fibrous pulley, accompanies the axillary vessels and nerves along the humerus, and is inserted by a few fleshy fibres on the base of the last two or three cubital quills.
Each podium consists of a portion of the stem bearing one or more leaves, each with an axillary bud or buds, and terminating in a tendril or an inflorescence.
While the tendril is thus diverted from its original direct course, the axillary bud of the leaf opposite the tendril begins a new podium, by lengthening into a shoot which assumes the direction the tendril had prior to its deflexion.
- With a deep cavity or pit on either side between the eye and the nose, lodged in the hollowed-out rr.axillary bone.
Tatarica, of similar habit, both European, are amongst the oldest English garden shrubs, and bear axillary flowers of various colours, occur Honeysuckle.
Female has six teats, of which four are inguinal and two axillary, and the placenta is zonary and deciduous.
- Apex of a shoot showing origin of leaves: f, leaf rudiment; g, rudiment of an axillary bud.
In the case of alternate leaves, the stipules at the base of each leaf are sometimes united to the petiole and to each other, so as to form an adnate, adherent or petiolary stipule, as in the rose, or an axillary stipule, as in Houttuynia cordata.
Axillary or terminal spikes; they have four stamens, which bear at the back four small herbaceous petal-like structures, and four free carpels, which ripen to form four small green fleshy fruits, each containing one seed within a hard inner coat;.
The flowers are white, axillary and slightly fragrant, - often two or three together on separate pedicels.
This lateral course is due to the more vigorous growth of the axillary branch formed near the base of each flower, which is a terminal structure, and, except in the female flower of Cycas, puts a limit to the apical growth of the stem.
15, C, 11,11) are often harder and browner than the others; forms have been described transitional between axillary shoots, in which the leaves are separate, and others in which two of the leaves are more or less completely fused.
In a young cone the seminiferous scale appears as a hump of tissue at the base or in the axil of the carpellary scale, but Celakovsky, a strong supporter of the axillary-bud theory, attaches little or no importance to this kind of evidence, regarding the present manner of development as being merely an example of a short cut adopted in the course of evolution, and replacing the original production of a branch in the axil of each carpellary scale.
Eichler, one of the chief supporters of the simpler view, does not recognize in the inverse orientation of the vascular bundles an argument in support of the axillary-bud theory, but points out that the seminiferous scale, being an outgrowth from the surface of the carpellary scale, would, like outgrowths from an ordinary leaf, naturally have its bundles inversely orientated.
Monstrous cones are fairly common; these in some instances lend support to the axillary-bud theory, and it has been said that this theory owes its existence to evidence furnished by abnormal cones.
B, seminiferous scale as leaf of axillary shoot (b, shoot; Sc, seminiferous scale; Br, bract).
Some monstrous cones lend no support to the axillary-bud theory.
One argument that has been adduced in support of the axillary bud theory is derived from the Palaeozoic type Cordaites, in which each ovule occurs en an axis borne in the axil of a bract.
Favour; but, on the other hand, the arguments advanced in favour of the axillary-bud theories are perhaps not sufficiently cogent to lead us to accept an explanation based chiefly on the uncertain evidence of monstrosities.
The flowers are small, and borne on axillary shoots.
The position of the branches varies in the group; they are only exceptionally axillary (Hymenophyllaceae, Botryopterideae).
There is one anterior vena cava, formed by the union of the two jugular and two axillary veins.
Branches sprang from the nodes, though perhaps not truly axillary in position.
The genus Zygopteris, of which numerous Carboniferous and Permian species are known, likewise had a monostelic stem, but the structure of its vascular cylinder was somewhat complex, resembling that of the most highly differentiated Hymenophyllaceae, with which some species of Zygopteris also agreed in the presence of axillary shoots.
Some of the stamens are inserted between the bracts, in an apparently axillary position, while others are grouped about the apex of the axis.
Bundles in tangential section; br, bracts; d, short axillary shoot, bearing a bracteole and a terminal ovule; i, integument; n, nucellus of ovule; ov, another ovule seen from the outside.
32, A, it appears that each ovule was borne terminally, on an extremely short axillary shoot, as in Taxus among recent Gymnosperms. The ovule consists of an integument (regarded by some writers as double) enclosing the nucellus.
B, Petiole with axillary bud.
The aorta gives off a large branch (the anterior aorta) very near its origin, from which arise - first, the left axillary, and afterwards the right axillary and the two carotid arteries.