The nature of the South American avifauna will perhaps become still more evident if we arrange the characteristic members as follows: i.
Salvin, "On the Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago," Trans.
In 1873 Elwes pointed out that the Himalayan avifauna extended into north-west China and established the Himalo-Chinese sub-region.
A similarly mixed avifauna has been found in the mid-Miocene beds of various other parts of France, Germany and Italy.
Here may be interpolated a short account of the very peculiar avifauna found in the Tertiary strata of Santa Cruz in Patagonia.
The main affinities of the avifauna are, of course, Australian.
Most interesting is the avifauna of the Sandwich islands; entirely devoid of Psittaci and of Coraciiformes, these islands show an extraordinary development of its peculiar family Drepanidae, which are probably of South or Central American descent.
On the whole its avifauna presents some very remarkable features.
Owing to the comparatively scanty number of harmful mammalian types, the birds play a considerable part in this large region, and some authorities consider its avifauna the richest in the world.
But the characteristic nature of the avifauna is more clearly brought out when we learn that of the 2000 species just mentioned only about 1070 belong to the higher suborder of Oscines, that means to say, nearly one-half belong to the lower suborder Clamatores.
Accordingly their disproportionate prevalence in South America points unerringly to the lower rank of the avifauna of the region as a whole, and therefore to the propriety of putting it next in order to that of the Australian region, the general fauna of which is admittedly the lowest in the world.
The differences between the Neotropical avifauna and that of North America are fundamental and prove the independence or superior value of the Neotropical region as one of the principal realms.
The close affinity of North America with the Palaearctic avifauna becomes at once apparent if we exclude those groups of birds which we have good reason to believe have their original home in the Neotropical region, notably numerous Tyrannidae, humming-birds and the turkey-buzzards.
In some cases the closest examination has failed to detect any distinction that may be called specific between the members of their avifauna; but in most it is possible to discover just sufficient difference to warrant a separation of the subjects.
Further on this subject we must not go; we can only state that Godman has shown good reason for declaring that the avifauna of all these islands is the effect of colonization extending over a long period of years, and going on now.
Birds, p. 353), the avifauna of Madagascar is not entirely composed of such singularities as these.
Some of the Malagasy avifauna is certainly ancient, aboriginal, and even points to India; other forms indicate clearly their African FIG.
Some of the similarities to the Ethiopian and the great differences from the Australian avifauna have already been pointed out.
The Himalo-Chinese or Transgangetic province shows the characteristics of its avifauna also far away to the eastward in Formosa, Hainan and Cochin China, and again in a lesser degree to the southward in the mountains of Malacca and Sumatra.
The avifauna of this region is very rich; it includes all the forest and garden birds known in W.
The avifauna, of course, becomes poorer; nevertheless, the woods of the steppe, and still more the forests of the ante-steppe, give refuge to many 1 Bibliography of Flora: Beketov, Appendix to Russian translation of Griesebach and Reclus's Geogr.
The avifauna is varied and abundant, comprising eagles, vultures (protected by law), hawks, owls, pelicans, cranes, turkeys, geese, partridges " (called quail or " Bob White " elsewhere), ducks, &c., besides numerous smaller species, many of which are brilliant of plumage but harsh of voice.
The avifauna is very rich in migratory water and marsh fowl (Grallatores and Natatores), which come to breed in the coast region; but only five land birds - the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), snow-bunting, Iceland falcon, snow-owl and raven - are permanent inhabitants of the region.
The avifauna of Brazil is rich in genera, species and individuals, especially in species with brilliantly-coloured plumage.
The flora is most closely associated with that of New Zealand, and the avifauna indicates the same connexion rather than one with Australia, as those birds which belong to Australian genera are apparently immigrants, while those which occur on the island in common with New Zealand would be incapable of such distant migration.
The avifauna of Mexico includes most of the species of the tropical and temperate regions of America - such as parrots (chiefly the yellow-headed Chrysotis), parakeets (Conurus canicula), macaws (Ara macao and A.
There are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archipelago had long been separated from any other land.
The avifauna include - among the birds of prey - the red-shouldered hawk, red-tailed hawk, marsh hawk, Cooper's hawk, sharp-shinned hawk and sparrow hawk; the great horned owl, the barn owl and the screech owl; and bald eagles are not uncommon in the mountainous regions along the larger rivers.
The avifauna is not remarkable.
No fewer than 385 species of avifauna are recorded, most of them being middle-European and Mediterranean.
The avifauna, with the exception of waterfowl, is also limited to comparatively few species.
Its alleged destructiveness to the Hawaiian avifauna seems open to doubt.
The avifauna resembles that of Madagascar; there are species of a peculiar genus of caterpillar shrikes (Campephagidae), as well as of the genera Pratincola, Hypsipetes, Phedina, Tchitrea, Zosterops, Foudia, Collocalia and Coracopsis, and peculiar forms of doves and parakeets.
Afghanistan appears to be, during the breeding season, the retreat of a variety of Indian and some African (desert) forms, whilst in winter the avifauna becomes overwhelmingly Eurasian.
The avifauna of Ecuador is distinguished for the great variety of its genera and species, among which are many peculiar to the Amazon valley, and others to the colder uplands.
The bear and fox are the only land mammals; insects are rare; but the avifauna is of interest, and the Jackson expedition distinguished several new species.
Some 350 species of birds are known, and the avifauna closely resembles that of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, including few peculiar species.