(1893); Hedley, " Surviving Refugees in Austral Lands of Ancient Antarctic Life," Royal Society N.
The boreal is cold, the austral warm, and the tropical affords conditions of heat and moisture to which the vegetation of the others would be intolerant.
Of these 40 are boreal, 22 austral and 69 tropical.
In North Carolina five of the seven life-zones into which North America has been divided are represented, but more of its area belongs to the upper-austral than to any other zone.
Tasmania.-The first magazine was Murray's Austral-Asiatic Review, published at Hobart in 1828.
The Austral-Asiatic or Malay Sea is occupied by a great shelf in the region west of Borneo and north of Java, while in the east there are eight abruptly sunk basins of widely different size.
The varied fauna and flora of Texas may be classified in the following life-zones: the Canadian zone, on the highest parts of the Davis Mountains; the Transition zone, including high parts of the Davis, Chisos and Guadalupe mountains; the Upper Austral zone, Upper Sonoran division, in the Panhandle, E.
Of the Pecos Valley, and in the Staked Plain and Edwards Plateau; and the widely extending Lower Austral zone, covering most of the state and subdivided into the Lower Sonoran or arid western part, the Austroriparian, or humid eastern, and the narrow Gulf Strip, which is semi-tropical.
Passarge's Die Kalahari (Berlin, 1904) deals chiefly with geological and allied questions; John Mackenzie's Austral Africa, Losing it or Ruling it (London, 1887); John Mackenzie, a biography by W.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.
Limit of numerous austral species, is divided into an eastern humid or Alleghanian area, a western arid area, and a Pacific coast humid area.
The Upper Austral zone is divided into an eastern humid (or Carolinian) area and a western arid (or Upper Sonoran) area.
The Lower Austral zone occupies the greater part of the Southern states, and is divided near the 98th meridian into an eastern humid or Austroriparian area and a western arid or Lower Sonoran area.
About the same time Rurutu in the Austral Islands and Aitutaki in the Cook Islands were evangelized, also by natives, and Christianity spread from island to island.
It was subsequently visited by La Perouse (1776), Kotzebue (1816), &c. At the time of Roggeveen's discovery the island probably contained from 2000 to 3000 inhabitants of Polynesian race, who, according to their own tradition, came from Rapa Iti (Little Rapa) or Oparo, one of the Tubuai or Austral group. In 1863 a large proportion of the inhabitants were kidnapped by the Peruvians and transported to work at the guano diggings on the Chincha Islands.
==Flora== Arkansas lies in the humid, or Austroriparian, area of the Lower Austral life-zone, except the highlands of the Ozark uplift and Ouachita Mountains, which belong to the humid, or Carolinian, area of the Upper Austral.
California embraces areas of every life-zone of North America: of the boreal, the Hudsonian and Canadian subzones; of the transition, the humid Pacific subzone; of the upper austral, the arid or upper Sonoran subzone; of the lower austral, the arid or lower Sonoran; of the tropical, the " dilute arid " subzone.
In the zoology and botany of California as of the rest of the Pacific Coast, the distinctions between the upper austral and humid transition zones are largely obliterated; and as one passes southward into the arid lands, life forms of both these zones intermingle with those of the arid transition.
Nebraska lies partly in the arid, or Upper Sonoran, and partly in the humid, or Carolinian, area of the Upper Austral lifezone; the divisional line being placed by the United States Biological Survey at about too° W.
Other species are exclusively tropical or austral in their range.
The state lies partly in the humid, or Carolinian, and partly in the arid, or Upper Sonoran, area of the Upper Austral life-zone; 100° W.
Excepting the embayment region, Missouri lies wholly within the Carolinian area of the Upper Austral life-zone; the There has been some controversy as to whether this condition is due to the elevation and corrosion of original flood-plain meanders after their development in a past base-level condition - which theory is probably correct - or to the natural, simultaneous lateral and vertical cut of an originally slightly sinuous stream, under such special conditions of stream declivity and horizontal bedstrata (conditions supposed by some to be peculiarly fulfilled in this region) as would be favourable to the requisite balance of bank cutting and channel incision.
Bird, Annals of Natal,1495-1845(2 vols., Maritzburg, 1888); C. de Mello, Os Inglezes na Africa austral (Lisbon, 1890); E.