SIR AUSTEN HENRY LAYARD (1817-1894), British author and diplomatist, the excavator of Nineveh, was born in Paris on the 5th of March 1817.
Through his mother, a daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate, he inherited Spanish blood.
After spending nearly six years in the office of his uncle, Benjamin Austen, a solicitor, he was tempted to leave England for Ceylon by the prospect of obtaining an appointment in the civil service, and he started in 1839 with the intention of making an overland journey across Asia.
Roberts-Austen pointed out that surfusion might be easily measured in metals and in alloys by the sensitive method of recording pyrometry perfected by him.
C. Roberts-Austen introduced it at the London mint; and it has also been used at Pretoria.
The next summer, however, on Mr. Austen Chamberlain's resignation owing to the Mesopotamia report, he returned to the India Office as Secretary of State and began a tenure of that post which will always be memorable in Indian annals.
In 1863 Captain Godwin Austen accompanied Sir Ashley Eden's mission to the court of the Deb raja, and made a survey of the route to Punakha.
Chamberlain remained colonial secretary, his son Austen being postmaster-general with a seat in the cabinet.
During this critical fortnight the duke had apparently acquiesced in Mr Balfour's compromise, and had co-operated in reconstituting the ministry; his nephew and heir had been made financial secretary to the treasury, while Mr Alfred Lyttelton was appointed colonial secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer, Mr Brodrick secretary for India, Mr H.
The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.
I.-Roberts-Austen or Carbon-Iron diagram.
He also published sympathetic monographs on Cowper and Jane Austen, and attempted verse in Bay Leaves and Specimens of Greek Tragedy.
Austen, A Monograph of the Tsetse Flies (1903); J.
Godwin-Austen indicates six of these geological axes as follows: 1.
Mount Godwin-Austen (28,250 ft.
Chief amongst them are the glaciers which have formed on the southern slopes of the Murtagh mountains below the group of gigantic peaks dominated by Mount Godwin-Austen (28,250 ft.
Godwin-Austen, " Mountain Systems of the Himalaya," vols.
He had some odd dislikes, and could find nothing in Aristophanes, Cervantes, Shelley, Scott, Miss Austen, Dickens.
But we may follow Godwin-Austen in accepting the main chain of the Murtagh as merging into the central mountain system of the Tibetan Chang, its axis being defined and divided by the transverse stream of the Shyok at its westward bend, whilst the Karakoram range, in which the Shyok rises, is a subsidiary northern branch.
C. Godwin-Austen had maintained, as early as 1840 (Proc. Geo.
Austen (1904), containing text, notes and illustrations (intended for schools), and that of C. E.
As the movement proceeded, Mr. Law was regarded as, along with Mr. Austen Chamberlain, the most decided Tariff Reformer left in the Ministry after Mr. Chamberlain's resignation.
The withdrawal of Mr. Chamberlain from active work in Parliament, owing to ill-health, left the stalwart Tariff Reform Ministry without a leader; his son, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, was his natural representative; but Mr. Law, by a series of fighting speeches both in the House and in the country, made himself particularly congenial to the more prominent members of that section.
1910 Mr. Austen Chamberlain and he had the satisfaction of mustering 254 votes (against only 285) in favour of a Tariff Reform amendment to the Address.
This loyal attitude, no doubt, was one of the reasons, and his strong Tariff Reform programme was another, which recommended him to his party as Mr. Balfour's successor in the leadership when the claims of Mr. Austen Chamberlain and Mr. (afterwards Lord) Long appeared to divide the Unionists pretty evenly.
He brought seven of his colleagues into the Cabinet with him - Lord Lansdowne, Mr. Balfour, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, D'Ir.
1919 the arrangement by which Mr. Law led the House of Commons was continued, as the Prime Minister would be much away at the Peace Conferences; but he was relieved of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, which was transferred to Mr. Austen Chamberlain, he himself taking the sinecure office of Lord Privy Seal.
His discoveries were afterwards verified by Godwin Austen, and ultimately by the Committee of the British Association, whose explorations were carried on under the guidance of Wm.
Pengelly, Address to the British Association (1883) and Life of him by his daughter (1897); Godwin Austen, Proc. Geo.
In Bloomsbury Square lived the Austens, and to their house, a great resort of similar persons, Mrs Austen cordially welcomed him.
It is therefore a probable conjecture that Mrs Austen, a clever woman of the world, helped him from her knowledge.
This finer work was the outcome of his friendship with Lady Austen, a widow who, on a visit to her sister, the wife of the vicar of the neighbouring village of Clifton, made the acquaintance of Cowper and Mrs Unwin.
Lady Austen determined to give up her house in London and to settle in Olney.
At the same time he welcomed the fact that Mr Chamberlain's son, Mr Austen Chamberlain, was ready to remain a member of the government.