Yet we learn from Capitolinus that Marcus Aurelius was still worshipped as a household divinity in the time of Diocletian, and was believed to impart revelations in dreams (Vit.
Aurelius, when we find it governed by a proconsul, as it was under Commodus; the latter, or perhaps Septimius Severus, took it over again and placed it under a procurator as praefectus once more (D.
Aurelius by the Senatus Fidenatium, was excavated in 1889.
The vivid narrative of his career given by Lucian might be taken as fictitious but for the corroboration of certain coins of the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius (J.
166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
See Lucian, 'AXï¿½EavSpos IkevSoï¿½avrns; Samuel Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius (1904); and F.
See Sallust, Jugurtha; Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum; Asconius, In Scaurum; Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus, 72; A.
In Marcus Aurelius - we see the partial softening and religious deepening of the system, and a doctrine of the wise man's power over passion and circumstance which has all the essentials of Libertarianism.
MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (121-180), Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, was born in Rome A.D.
The full name he then bore was Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, Aelius coming from Hadrian's family, and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus Pius.
The education of Aurelius in his youth was minute (see Medit.
Through all his Stoical training Aurelius preserved the natural sweetness of his nature.
During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 to 161), the concord between him and Aurelius was complete; Capitolinus (c. 7) says "nec praeter duas noctes per tot annos mansit diversis vicibus."
It has been assumed on the strength of a passage in Capitolinus that Aurelius married Faustina in 146, but the passage is not clear, and other evidence points strongly to 140; at all events it seems certain that a daughter was born to him in 140.
Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.
It is believed that the senate urged Aurelius to take the sole administration.
The early part of the reign of Aurelius was clouded by national misfortunes.
Indeed, the bulk of the reign of Aurelius was spent in efforts to ward off the attacks of the barbarians.
Aurelius was thenceforth indisputed master of the empire, during one of the most troubled periods of its history.
In the autumn of 169 two of the German tribes, the Quadi and the Marcomanni, with their allies the Vandals, Iazyges and Sarmatians, renewed hostilities and, for three years, Aurelius resided almost constantly at Carnuntum.
In 174 Aurelius gained over the Quadi a decisive victory, which is commemorated by one of the sculptures on the column of Antonine.
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
Among various reasons, the most convincing is that the presence of Aurelius was required in Rome; moreover, the real leader was evidently Cassius.
Aurelius next marched to Germany.
But after three months Cassius was assassinated, and his head was brought to Aurelius, who with characteristic magnanimity, persuaded the senate to pardon all the family of Cassius.
But none of these stories rests on trustworthy evidence; on the other hand, there can be no doubt that Aurelius trusted her while she lived, and mourned her loss.
After the death of Faustina and the pacification of Syria, Aurelius proceeded, on his return to Italy, through Athens, and was initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries, the reason assigned for his doing so being that it was his custom to conform to the established rites of the countries he visited.
In 177 occurred that persecution of Christians, the share of Aurelius in which has been the subject of so much controversy.
Meanwhile the German War continued, and the two Quintilii, who had been left in command, begged Aurelius once more to take the field.
In this campaign Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save, in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.
Commodus, who was with his father when he died, erected to his memory the Antonine column (now in the Piazza Colonna at Rome), round the shaft of which are sculptures in relief commemorating the miracle of the Thundering Legion and the various victories of Aurelius over the Quadi and the Marcomanni.
Aurelius throughout his reign was hostile to Christianity.
But Aurelius was an eager patriot and a man of logical mind.
In other words the governors were ordered merely to punish sacrilege, and, under Aurelius, Christianity was regarded as such.
When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the Christians, that the only mention of them in the Meditations is a contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
The book which contains the philosophy of Aurelius is known by the title of his Reflections, or Meditations, although that is not the name which he gave to it himself avrov).
Aurelius throughout his life adhered to the Stoical philosophy.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
Aurelius is, above all things, a practical moralist.
It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
The morality of Marcus Aurelius cannot be said to have been new when it was given to the world.
But above all, what gives the sentences of Marcus Aurelius their enduring value and fascination, and renders them superior to the utterances of Epictetus and Seneca, is that they are the gospel of his life.
Aurelius Antoninus (1884) contains a general account - life, character, philosophy, relations with Christianity - as well as a bibliography; see also art.
Aurelius (London, 1904).
P. Dickson, London, 1886); for the Aurelius column, E.
(6) For a full account of the correspondence of Aurelius and Fronto, see Robinson Ellis, Correspondence of Fronto and M.
Aurelius (Oxford, 1904).
Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state), Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, Bk.
10; Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 36; Zonaras xii.
Aurelius Memmius Symmachus.