The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
Aurelian referred the matter to the bishop of Rome and the bishops of Italy, who gave their award in favour of the Antiochene Church.
Six months after the assassination of Aurelian he was chosen by the senate to succeed him, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army.
270, when Aurelian succeeded Claudius as emperor, Wahab-allath was governing Egypt with the title of " king."
His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.
Wahab-allath(5th year)begins to issue coins at Alexandria without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title; and Zenobia's coins bear the same.
Aurelian, the true Augustus, quickly grasped the situation, and took strenuous measures to deal with it.
270 Probus brought back Egypt into the empire, not without a considerable struggle; then in 271 Aurelian made preparations for a great campaign against the seat of the mischief itself.
At length Aurelian arrived before the walls of Palmyra, which was captured probably in the spring of A.D.
Aurelian heard of it just when he had crossed the Hellespont on his way home.
Aurelian restored the walls and the great Temple of the Sun (A.D.
After its overthrow by Aurelian, Palmyra was partially revived as a military station by Diocletian (end of 3rd century A.D.), as we learn from a Latin inscription found on the site.
15) and Achilleus, said to have been baptized by St Peter, refused to do the bidding of Domitian as praetorians, and entering the service of Flavia Domitilla, suffered martyrdom with their mistress Petronilla, of the Aurelian family closely connected with the Flavii, and the spiritual daughter of St Peter, who was buried in a sarcophagus with the inscription: [[Avreliae Petronillae Fil Dvlcissimae]] This is now in St Peter's, but was probably originally behind the apse of this basilica, for there is a fresco of her in an arcosolium, with a matron named Veneranda.
" When, in 241, Aurelian, who was then only a tribune, had just defeated some Franks in the neighbourhood of Mainz and was marching against the Persians, his troops sang the following refrain: Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos, semel et semel occidimus; Mille Persas, quaerimus.
Gregory is believed to have died in the reign of Aurelian, about the year 270, though perhaps an earlier date is more probable.
About 274 the emperor Aurelian surrounded it with ramparts.
It seems probable, however, that the Via Laurentina proper is that which led out of the Porta Ardeatina of the Aurelian wall and went direct to Tor Paterno, while the road branching from the Via Ostiensis at the third mile, and leading past Decimo to Lavinium (Pratica), which crosses the other road at right angles not far from its destination (the Laurentina there running S.W.
Their barracks at Rome covering a rectangle of 39 acres (1210 by 1410 ft.), were included by Aurelian in the walls of Rome, and three sides of the enceinte can still be seen near the Porta Pia, with brickwork as old as Tiberius: the interior (now barracks for the Italian army) is archaeologically less interesting.
The Aegyptus sive de providentia is an allegory in which the good Osiris and the evil Typhon, who represent Aurelian and the Goth Gainas (ministers under Arcadius), strive for mastery; and the question of the divine permission of evil is handled.
After the successful Aurelian had granted the petition of the embassy, Synesius returned to Cyrene in 400, and spent the next ten years partly in that city, when unavoidable business called him there, but chiefly on an estate in the interior of the province, where in his own words "books and the chase" made up his life.
After the abandonment of Dacia to the barbarians by Aurelian (270-275) and the transference of its inhabitants to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of Dacia Aureliani (again divided into Dacia ripensis and interior).
At that time there were two rival political parties at Constantinople, the "Roman" party led by Aurelian (son of Taurus), praetorian prefect, and supported by the empress and a Germanizing and Arianizing party led by Aurelian's brother (possibly Caesarius, praetorian prefect in 400).
The Roman party recovered its power; Aurelian was again praetorian prefect in 402; and the Germanization which was to befall the western world was averted from the east.
Aurelian overthrew the Palmyran rule; but he was assassinated before he could carry out his intended expedition against Persia, Probus was assassinated before he was able to do anything (or much), and although Carus easily overran Mesopotamia, which became Roman again, and even took Ctesiphon, the Romans retreated on his death (283-4).
Their sentence, however, did not take effect until late in 272, when the emperor Aurelian, having defeated Zenobia and anxious to impose upon Syria the dogmatic system fashionable in Rome, deposed Paul and allowed the rival 'candidate Domnus to take his place and emoluments.
He served with distinction as a soldier under Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces.
Aurelian made war upon her (A.D.
Probus, who had governed Egypt for Aurelian and Tacitus, was subsequently :hosen by the troops to succeed Tacitus, and is the first governor)f this province who obtained the whole of the empire.
270 Wahab-allath is named along with Aurelian, but the title of Augustus is given only to the latter; a Greek inscription from Byblos, however, mentions Aurelian (or his predecessor Claudius) and Zenobia together as /03avrOs and ZE(3acrrl (i.e.
When Aurelian became emperor in 270 he quickly realized that the policy of the Palmyrene queen was endangering the unity of the empire.
It was not long before all disguises were thrown off; in Egypt Wahab-allath began to issue coins without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title, and Zenobia's coins bear the same.
Aurelian instantly took measures; Egypt was recovered for the Empire by Probus (close of 270), and the emperor himself prepared a great expedition into Asia Minor and Syria.
Thither Aurelian followed her in spite of the difficulties of transport, and laid siege to the well-fortified and provisioned city.
Aurelian seized the wealth of the city but spared the inhabitants; to Zenobia he granted life; while her officers and advisers, among whom was the celebrated scholar Longinus, were put to death.
A few months after the fall of Zenobia, Palmyra revolted again; Aurelian unexpectedly returned, destroyed the city, and this time showed no mercy to the population (spring, 273).
Up to the 3rd century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but in 275 Aurelian changed Cenabum from a vicus into a civitas and named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (whence Orleans).
69), and the defeat of Aurelian by the Marcomanni outside the walls (A.D.
Aurelian (270-275) withdrew the troops altogether and settled the Roman colonists on the south of the Danube, in Moesia, where he created the province Dacia Aureliani.
In the time of Aurelian they invaded Pannonia, and during the reign of Probus we find them fighting in Dacia.
Aurelian is said to have won a victory over them, but the province of Dacia had to be given up. In the time of Constantine the Great Thrace and Moesia were again plundered by the Goths, A.D.
Paul refused to give way, and in 272 the emperor Aurelian was asked to decide between the rivals.
Aurelian, was called on to reconstitute a Liberal cabinet, with the principal object of calming public opinion by the settlement of this question.
Aurelian then appealed to the patriotic sentiments of the Conservative party to help to solve the difficulty, and with the aid of Lascar Catargiu and Tache Ionescu the following decision was reached: the Holy Synod was to reverse its judgment, and the metropolitan was to be restored to his ecclesiastical rank; but, after holding it for a few days, he was voluntarily to resign and to receive as compensation a handsome pension.
Calm was thus restored, but Aurelian and his colleagues were not inclined to hand over their portfolios to Sturdza and his partisans.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
There Aurelian crushed, in A.D.