From Akbar's accession to Aurangzeb's death, a period of 151 years, the Mogul was India's master.
Aurangzeb's death and the invasion of Nadir Shah led to a triple alliance among the three leading chiefs, which internal jealousy so weakened that the Mahrattas, having been called in by the Rahtors to aid them, took possession of Ajmere about 1756; thenceforward Rajputana became involved in the general disorganization of India.
The death of the emperor Aurangzeb brought a temporary lull: the guru assisted Aurangzeb's successor, Bahadur Shah, and was himself not long after assassinated at Nander in the Deccan.
Shuja, who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son, who, however, deserted and joined his uncle.
No similar contest disturbed Aurangzeb's long reign of forty-six years, which has been celebrated, though with doubtful justice, as the most brilliant period of the history of Hindustan.
Under their able leader, Sivaji, these daring freebooters plundered in every direction, nor could all Aurangzeb's efforts avail to subdue them.
The reply to this indictment is that the British land revenue is L16,000,000 annually, whereas Aurangzeb's over a smaller area, allowing for the difference in the value of the rupee, was X110,000,000; though the Indian Civil Service is expensive, its cost is more than covered by the fact that India, under British guarantee, obtains her loans at 31% as against 10% or more paid by native rulers; though India has a heavy military burden, she pays no contribution to the British navy, which protects her seaboard from invasion; the drain of the home charges cannot be very great, as India annually absorbs 6 millions sterling of the precious metals; in 1899-1900, a year of famine, the net imports of gold and silver were 1 3 o millions.
Aurangzeb's long reign, from 1658 to 1707, may be regarded as representing both the culminating point of Mogul power and the beginning of its decay.
At the time of Aurangzeb's death in 1707 the nawab or governor of Bengal was Murshid Kuli Khan, known also as Jafar Khan.