Atra, restricted to the Alps; S.
Atra, on the other hand, inhabits the Alps between 2000 and 9000 ft.
In fact, among the remaining land vertebrates, only the black salamander (Salamandra atra) is exclusively alpine.
In later times the Arabic town Atra in an oasis on the west of the Tigris, governed by its own kings, gained special importance.
Many cases are known in which the young batrachian enters the world in the perfect condition, as in the black salamander of the Alps (Salamandra atra), the cave salamander (Spelerpes fuscus), the caecilian Typhlonectes, and a number of frogs, such as Pipa, Rhinoderma, Hylodes, some Nototrema, Rana opisthodon, &c. A fairly complete bibliographical index to these cases and the most remarkable instances of parental care in tailless batrachians will be found in the interesting articles by Lilian V.