(-268.7° C.), the density of the liquid 0.154, the critical temperature 5° abs., and the critical pressure 2.3 atmospheres (Communications from the Physical Laboratory at Leiden, No.
Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .
5 atmospheres was employed the result was 796.9 foot-pounds.
In allowing the air to expand from a pressure of 21 atmospheres to that of i atmosphere the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat obtained was 821.89 foot-pounds.
Between io atmospheres and 1 it was 815.875 foot-pounds, and between 23 and 14 atmospheres 761.74 foot-pounds.
Rend., 1888, 106, p. 1357.) The gas may be liquefied by a pressure of about 17 atmospheres, the liquid so obtained boiling at - 61.8° C.; and by further cooling it yields a solid, the melting point of which is given by various observers as - 82° to - 86° C. (see Ladenburg, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 6 37).
The former is often a rich oil-gas, stored in steel reservoirs under the coaches at a pressure of six or seven atmospheres, and passed through a reducing valve to the burners; these used to be of the ordinary fish-tail type, but inverted incandescent mantles are coming into increasing use.
Of especial interest is the 0 curve BD; along this line liquid and rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which means that at above 131° and 400 atmospheres the rhombic (and not the monoclinic) variety would separate from liquid sulphur.
Unit with a pressure of 250 atmospheres and H = 54.
(17) For sea water, A is about 25,000 atmospheres, and k is then 25,000 times the height of the water barometer, about 250,000 metres, so that in an ocean 10 kilometres deep the level is lowered about 200 metres by the compressibility of the water; and the density at the bottom is increased 4%.
Each has its atmospheres, waters and earths, but in the one they are natural and in the other spiritual.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21ï¿½53 atmospheres at a temperature of o° C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at - 82° C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
The critical point of the gas is 37° C., at which temperature a pressure of 68 atmospheres is required for liquefaction.
It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator.
Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.
Here then we have the basis of a view in which there are not two media to be considered, but one medium, homogeneous in essence and differentiated as regards its parts only by the presence of nuclei of intrinsic strain or motion - in which the physical activities of matter are identified with those arising from the atmospheres of modified aether which thus belong to its atoms. As regards laws of general physical interactions, the atom is fully represented by the constitution of this atmosphere, and its nucleus may be left out of our discussions; but in the problems of biology great tracts of invariable correlations have to be dealt with, which seem hopelessly more complex than any known or humanly possible physical scheme.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
In., or 16X2240÷14.7 =2440 atmospheres, of 14.7 lb per sq.
The weight of a cubic decimetre of water reaches 1000 grammes under a pressure of four atmospheres; but in vacuo, at all temperatures, the weight of water is less than a kilogram.
It readily liquefies at 0° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at To° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid.
In the original experiments 2 the pressures could only be increased to 15 atmospheres, but in a more recent work Humphreys,' and independently Duffield, were able to use pressures up to ioo atmospheres.
It is found that the lines of the same element do not all show the same shift, thus the calcium line at 4223 is displaced by 0.4 A by ioo atmospheres pressure, while the H and K lines are only displaced through about half that amount.
A quantity of gas measured by its molecular weight in grammes when confined in a volume of one litre exerts a pressure of 22.2 atmospheres, and thus the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution divided by its concentration in gramme-molecules per litre has a corresponding value.
Atmospheres will form, then plants will be seeded, and then the colonists will arrive.