5 atmospheres was employed the result was 796.9 foot-pounds.
Between io atmospheres and 1 it was 815.875 foot-pounds, and between 23 and 14 atmospheres 761.74 foot-pounds.
The former is often a rich oil-gas, stored in steel reservoirs under the coaches at a pressure of six or seven atmospheres, and passed through a reducing valve to the burners; these used to be of the ordinary fish-tail type, but inverted incandescent mantles are coming into increasing use.
Of especial interest is the 0 curve BD; along this line liquid and rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which means that at above 131° and 400 atmospheres the rhombic (and not the monoclinic) variety would separate from liquid sulphur.
Unit with a pressure of 250 atmospheres and H = 54.
(17) For sea water, A is about 25,000 atmospheres, and k is then 25,000 times the height of the water barometer, about 250,000 metres, so that in an ocean 10 kilometres deep the level is lowered about 200 metres by the compressibility of the water; and the density at the bottom is increased 4%.
Each has its atmospheres, waters and earths, but in the one they are natural and in the other spiritual.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21ï¿½53 atmospheres at a temperature of o° C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at - 82° C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
The critical point of the gas is 37° C., at which temperature a pressure of 68 atmospheres is required for liquefaction.
It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator.
Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
The weight of a cubic decimetre of water reaches 1000 grammes under a pressure of four atmospheres; but in vacuo, at all temperatures, the weight of water is less than a kilogram.
It readily liquefies at 0° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at To° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid.
In the original experiments 2 the pressures could only be increased to 15 atmospheres, but in a more recent work Humphreys,' and independently Duffield, were able to use pressures up to ioo atmospheres.
It is found that the lines of the same element do not all show the same shift, thus the calcium line at 4223 is displaced by 0.4 A by ioo atmospheres pressure, while the H and K lines are only displaced through about half that amount.
A quantity of gas measured by its molecular weight in grammes when confined in a volume of one litre exerts a pressure of 22.2 atmospheres, and thus the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution divided by its concentration in gramme-molecules per litre has a corresponding value.
As the nuclei grow by the attraction of matter they begin to be capable of retaining the lighter gases, and atmospheres of hydrogen and helium are formed.
Atmospheres will form, then plants will be seeded, and then the colonists will arrive.
Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .
One contained air at a pressure of 22 atmospheres, while the other was exhausted.
Putting the absolute temperature of the freezing point of water as 273°, the osmotic pressure P as 22.2 atmospheres or 22.4X106, C.G.S.
Approximately one degree lowering of freezing point corresponds with a change of 12 atmospheres in the osmotic pressure.
He found that pressure increases luminosity, so that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame.
Employing Pressures Between 7 And 27 Atmospheres, He Found That The Specific Heat Of Air Between 10 And Ioo C. Increased Very Slightly With Increase Of Density, But That Of Co 2 Increased Nearly 3% Between 7 And 21 Atmospheres.
Its critical pressure is 30 atmospheres and its critical temperature is in the neighbourhood of 195° C. (J.
The apparatus was first used to investigate the variation in the volume of air with pressure, and the conclusion was that up to twenty-seven atmospheres, the highest pressure attained in the experiments, Boyle's law holds good.
The original intention was to push the experiments to a pressure equivalent to thirty atmospheres, but owing to the signs of failure exhibited by the boiler the limit actually reached was twenty-four atmospheres, at which pressure the thermometers indicated a temperature of about 224 0 C. In his last paper, published posthumously in 1838, Dulong gave an account of experiments made to determine the heat disengaged in the combination of various simple and compound bodies, together with a description of the calorimeter he employed.
The bottles employed have to be of very fine quality, as the pressure which they have to stand may be as much as 7 to, 8 atmospheres or mere.
In fact, the quantity 41rp 2 K, which we may call with van der Waals the molecular pressure, is so great for most liquids (5000 atmospheres for water), that in the parts near the surface, where the molecular pressure varies rapidly, we may expect considerable variation of density, even when we take into account the smallness of the compressibility of liquids.
Hence it comes by natural gravitation into the town at a pressure of five atmospheres, so that it supplies the highest parts of the town with abundant water.
Phosphonium Salts.-The chloride, PH 4 C1, was obtained as a crystalline solid by Ogier (Comptes rendus, 1879, 89, p. 705) by combining phosphine and hydrochloric acid gas under a pressure of from 14-20 atmospheres; it can also be obtained at -30° to -35° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
It is a colourless, non-fuming gas, which gives a colourless, mobile liquid at -10° and 20 atmospheres; the liquid boils at -95° and solidifies at -160° (Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 789).
It is a colourless gas 42 times heavier than air, and liquefies at 15° under 40 atmospheres, solidifying when the pressure is diminished.
It is a colourless fuming gas, which liquefies under ordinary pressure at -50°, and under a pressure of 15 atmospheres at 16°; it may be solidified to a snow-like mass.
Recent experiments on arc spectra at pressures up to 100 atmospheres by W.
By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).
The outcome of this drawback is that our knowledge of the chemical constitution of the stars and planets is still confined to their atmospheres, and that conclusions as to the constitution of the interior masses which form them must be drawn by other methods than the spectroscopic one.
For the preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more.