The beginning of the i 2th century was the age of the atabegs (regents or stadtholders).
The atabegs formed a number of dynasties, which displaced the descendants of the Seljukian amirs in their various principalities.
There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin (1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,, represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr about i 101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.1 But the greatest of the atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris - Maudud, who died in 1113; Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself, who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.
One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
The following table of the Shad Ayyub (both generals in the army of the Atabegs of Mosul).
There is little in Arabic bearing on the First Crusade: the Arabic authorities only begin to be of value with the rise of the atabegs of Mosul (c. 1127).
His history of the Atabegs was written about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which finally crushed the kingdom of J erusalem.'
Little Luristan was governed by a race of independent princes of the Khurshidi dynasty, and called atabegs, from 1155 to the beginning of the 17th century when the last atabeg, Shah Verdi Khan, was removed by Shah Abbas I.
Great Luristan was an independent state under the Fazlevieh atabegs from 1160 until 1424, and its capital was Idaj, now represented by mounds and ruins at Malamir 60 m.
In the 11th century it belonged to the Seljuks, and in the 12th, under the sway of the Atabegs, particularly of Zenki, it had a short period of splendour.
This contains the work of Baha-ud-din (1145-1234), diplomatist, and secretary of Saladin, the general history of Ibn-Athir (1160-1233), the eulogist of the atabegs of Mosul but the unwilling admirer of Saladin, and parts of the general history of Abulfeda.
The atabegs of Fars, of Azerbaijan, of Syria, &c. The title was first given to Nizam ul-Mulk and expressed the relation in which he stood to the prince, - as lala, " tutor."
Meanwhile an independent dynasty was formed about 1136 in Azerbaijan by the governors (atabegs) appointed by the Seljuks; this dynasty was overthrown by the Khwarizm shahs in 1225.
I2II~ 608 A.H)all three paoegyrists of the atabegs of Azerbaijan, and especially of Sultan J~izii Arslan Kamal-uddin I~fahgni, tortured to death by the Moguls in 1237 (635 A.H.), who sang, like his father Jamal-uddIn, the praise of the governors of I~fahn, and gained the epithet of the creator of fine thoughts (Khallal~-ulmaanI); and Saif-uddin IsfarangI (d.