(2) Population compt~e a part, which includes soldiers and sailors, inmates of prisons, asylums, schools, members of religious communities, and workmen temporarily engaged in public works.
Infant asylums (where the first rudiments of instruction are imparted to children between two and a half and six years of age) and elementary schools have increased in number.
Thus: Infant Asylums Daily Elementary Schools (Public and Private).
Number of Number of Number of Number of Asylums. Scholars.
Between 1881 and 1898 the chief increases took place in the endowments of hospitals; orphan asylums; infant asylums; poorhouses; almshouses; voluntary workhouses; and institutes for the blind.
The least creditably administered of these are the asylums for abandoned infants; in I887, of a total of 23,913, 53.77% died; while during the years 1893-1896 (no later statistics are available) of 117,970 51.72% died.
Of the sum spent by the provincial authorities, over half goes to lunatic asylums and over a quarter to the maintenance of foundling hospitals.
The cost of fire brigades, infant asylums, evening and holiday schools, is classed as optional expenditure.
Expenditure amounted to 3,768,888, of which the principal items were 760,000 for roads and bridges, 520,000 for lunatic asylums, ~4o,ooo for foundling hospitals, 320,000 for interest on debtand 200,000 for police.
The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
Hospitals, asylums, refuges and homes, pauper, reformatory and penal institutions, flower missions, relief associations, and other charitable or philanthropic organizations, private and public, number several hundreds.
The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.
Finally, the government sustains about two score of penal establishments, reform schools, hospitals, dispensaries and asylums, which are scattered all over the island, - every town of any considerable size having one or more of these charities.
Cleveland has also its orphan asylums, homes for the aged, homes for incurables, and day nurseries, besides a home for sailors, homes for young working women, and retreats for unfortunate girls.
Auburn has a city hall, the large Burtis Auditorium, the Auburn hospital, two orphan asylums, and the Seymour library in the Case Memorial building.
The church likewise exercises a far-reaching influence over the people through the beneficent work of its lay orders, and through the hospitals and asylums under its control in every part of the country.
A considerable step in advance is the establishment by the London County Council of a central laboratory for its asylums, with an eminent pathologist at its head: from this laboratory valuable reports are in course of issue.
Hospitals.-The Metropolitan Asylums Board, though established in 1867 purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane Metro- and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into politan its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from Asylums fever, smallpox or diphtheria.
The Board has asylums for the insane at Tooting Bec (Wandsworth), Ealing (for children); King's Langley, Hertfordshire; Caterham, Surrey; and Darenth, Kent.
1,270,406 Metropolitan Asylums Board.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
During this time he produced his Essay on Projects (1698), containing suggestions on banks, road-management, friendly and insurance societies of various kinds, idiot asylums, bankruptcy, academies, military colleges, high schools for women, &c. It displays Defoe's lively and lucid style in full vigour, and abounds with ingenious thoughts and apt illustrations, though it illustrates also the unsystematic character of his mind.
There are efficient hospitals and asylums, a system of sanitary inspection, and modernized quarantine stations.
Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
The census of 1871 obtained for the first time a return of persons of unsound mind not confined in asylums. During the next ten years, the separate areas for which population returns had to be prepared were seriously multiplied by the creation of sanitary districts, to the number of 966.
There are 12 hospitals (3 of them city institutions), 6 orphan asylums, 4 homes for the aged, a foundlings' home and a state industrial school for girls.
Regular training on the same plan as in general hospitals is provided in London at the fever hospitals of the Metropolitan Asylums Board (12 in number, with from 360 to 760 beds each), and at a considerable number of provincial institutions.
The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland holds examinations and grants certificates in mental nursing; candidates must undergo three years' regular training, with instruction by lectures, &c., which may be obtained in a large number of public asylums by arrangement with the Association; one county asylum (Northampton) gives its own certificates after a three years' course.
Sir Henry C. Burdett, Hospitals and Asylums of the World; The Nursing Profession (annual); Hampton, Nursing; Percy G.
Many of these still remain in another form (the district hospital, the lunatic asylum, the gaol, two asylums for the infirm and destitute, the Protestant and Catholic orphan schools), involving a government expenditure which partly sustains the business of the town.
There are two public lunatic asylums in the city, and another at the neighbouring town of Aversa; and many private asylums, among which Fleurent, Miano and Ponti Rossi may be mentioned.
The hundred rate is seldom made, though in some counties it may be made for purposes of main roads and bridges chargeable to the hundred as distinguished from the county at large; (ii.) the borrowing of money; (iii.) the passing of the accounts of, and the discharge of the county treasurer; (iv.) shire halls, county halls, assize courts, the judges' lodgings, lock-up houses, court houses, justices' rooms, police stations and county buildings, works and property; (v.) the licensing under any general act of houses and other places for music or for dancing, and the granting of licences under the Racecourses Licensing Act 1879; (vi.) the provision, enlargement, maintenance and management and visitation of, and other dealing with, asylums for pauper lunatics; (vii.) the establishment and maintenance of, and the contribution to, reformatory and industrial schools; (viii.) bridges and roads repairable with bridges, and any powers vested by the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act 1878 in the county authority.
This accommodation may be provided by one council or by a combination of two or more, and such council or combination may provide one or more asylums. The county council exercise their powers through a visiting committee, consisting of not less than seven members, or, in the case of a combination, of a number of members appointed by each council in agreed proportions.
Private patients may be accommodated in the asylums provided by a county council, and received upon terms fixed by the visiting committee.
The expenses of lunatic asylums are defrayed in the following manner: The guardians from whose union a lunatic is sent have to pay a fixed weekly sum, which may not exceed 14s.
In 1867 the Metropolitan Asylums Board took over its work from the metropolitan boards of guardians.
Besides his anti-clerical pamphlets his minor writings include much discussion of social questions, of the organization of savings banks, asylums, &c., and he founded the Societe Callier for the encouragement of thrift among the working classes.
According to the returns of 1903 there were 88 hospitals in the republic, which reported 79,051 admissions during the year, and had 6215 patients under treatment at its close; 628,536 patients received gratuitous medical assistance at the public dispensaries during the year; there were 24 foundling hospitals with 557 0 children; and there were 3092 persons in the various hospicios or asylums, and 1478 in the imbecile asylums.
Upon the arrival of Garibaldi at Naples, Bertani was appointed secretary-general of the dictator, in which capacity he reorganized the police, abolished the secret service fund, founded twelve infant asylums, suppressed the duties upon Sicilian products, prepared for the suppression of the religious orders, and planned the sanitary reconstruction of the city.
There are 255 orphan asylums, with 40,588 inmates.
Among the public buildings are the governor's and bishop's palaces, townhall, cathedral and 9 churches, national college, episcopal seminary and schools of law and medicine, theatre, two hospitals, custom-house, and several asylums and charitable institutions.