Finding their comrades did not return, Irala and his companions determined to descend the river, and on their downward journey opposite the mouth of the river Pilcomayo, finding a suitable site for colonizing, they founded (1536) what proved to be the first permanent Spanish settlement in the interior of South America, the future city of Asuncion (15th August 1536).
This able leader, eager to reach Asuncion as quickly as possible, sent on his ships to the river Plate, but himself with a small following marched overland from Santa Catherina on the coast of Brazil to join Irala.
His doings at Asuncion belong, however, not to the history of Argentina, but of Paraguay.
In 1573 Juan de Garay, at the head of an expedition despatched from Asuncion, founded the city of Santa Fe near the abandoned settlements of San Espiritu and Corpus Christi.
In 1620 Buenos Aires was separated from the authority of the government established at Asuncion, and was made the seat of a government extending over Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Corrientes, but at the same time remained like the government of Paraguay at Asuncion, and that of the province of Tucuman, which had Cordoba as its capital, subject to the authority of the viceroyalty of Peru.
Behind them the Spaniards, who had an establishment at Asuncion, had penetrated almost to the sources of the waters of Paraguay, and had succeeded in establishing communication with Peru.
Under the constitution of the 27th of April 1904, the republic was divided into 13 states, 1 federal district and 5 territories, the names of which are as follows, those of the capital cities being given in brackets: Federal District (Caracas and La Asuncion); Aragua (La Victoria); Bermudez (Cumana); Bolivar (Ciudad Bolivar); Carabobo (Valencia); Falcon (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto); Merida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Tachira (San Cristobal); Trujillo (Trujillo); Zamora (San Carlos); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); Colon (Gran Roque);; Cristobal Colon (Cristobal Colon); Delta-Amacuro (San Jose de Amacuro); Yaruari (Guacipati).
The division was as follows: Federal District (Caracas); Anzoategui (Barcelona); Apure (San Fernando de Apure); Aragua (La Victoria); Bolivar (Ciudad Bolivar); Carabobo (Valencia); Cojedes (San Carlos); Falcon (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto); Merida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Monagas (M'Iaturin); Nueva Esparta (La Asuncion); Portuguesa (Guanare); Sucre (Cumana); Tachira (San Cristobal); Trujillo (Trujillo); Yaracuy (San Felipe); Zamora (Barinas); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); Delta-Amacuro (Tucupita).
And discharge into the Gulf of California, viz.: the Altar, or Asuncion, Sonora, Yaqui and Mayo.
ASUNCION (NUESTRA SENORA DE LA ASUNCION), a city and port of Paraguay, and capital of the republic, on the left bank of the Paraguay river in 25° 16' 04" S., 57° 42' 40" W., and 970 m.
The city faces upon a curve in the river bank forming what is called the Bay of Asuncion, and is built on a low sandy plain, rising to pretty hillsides overlooking the bay and the low, wooded country of the Chaco on the opposite shore.'
Asuncion is laid out on a regular plan, the credit for which is largely due to Dictator Francia; the principal streets-are paved and lighted by gas and electricity; and telephone and street-car services are maintained.
Asuncion was founded by Ayolas in 1535, and is the oldest permanent Spanish settlement on the La Plata.
VILLA RICA, the largest city in the interior of Paraguay, on the railway from Asuncion (70 m.
From the Asuncion plateau southwards, near the confluence of the Paraguay and Parana, there is a vast stretch of marshy country, draining partly into the Ypoa lagoon, amd smaller tracts of the same character are found in other parts of the lowlands, especially in the valley of the Paraguay.
South-east of Asuncion), and native copper, oxide of manganese, marbles, lime and salt have been found, the real wealth of the country consists rather in the variety and value of its vegetable products.
The principal towns are Asuncion, the capital (pop. 1905, 60,259), Villa Rica (25,000), Concepcion (15,000) and Villa del Pilar (10,000); these are described in separate articles.
Asuncion, the only bishopric in the state, is in the archiepiscopal province of Buenos Aires.
Out of 1320 ships which entered Asuncion in 1908 and 1184 which cleared, none was of British or United States nationality.
Provides direct and regular communication between Asuncion and New York.
The only railway in the republic is the Paraguay Central which was open in 1906 between Asuncion and Pirap6 (154 m.).
They were intended to shorten the journey between Buenos Aires and Asuncion from 5 days to 36 hours.
Telegraph lines connect Asuncion with other towns, and two cables put the republic in communication with the rest of the world by way of Corrientes and Posadas.
Asuncion was founded on the 15th of August 1535 by Juan de Ayolas, and his successor, Martinez de Ira]a, determined to make it the capital of the Spanish possessions east of the Andes.
Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.
Commerce and Finance: British consular reports (London, annual); Report of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London, annual); statistical publications of the Paraguay government and presidential messages, in Spanish (Asuncion, annual); Revue du Paraguay (Asuncion, monthly); Paraguay (Washington, Bureau of Amer.
Audibert, Question de limites entre el Paraguay y Bolivia (Asuncion, 1901); H.
The island of Santa Catharina was originally settled by the Spanish; Cabeza de Vaca landed here in 1542 and marched hence across country to Asuncion, Paraguay.