The ancient Egyptian year consisted of 365 days; but after the introduction of the Julian calendar, the astronomers of Alexandria adopted an intercalary year, and added six additional days instead of five to the end of the last month of every fourth year.
C. Janssen, a spectroscopic method for observing the solar prominences in daylight, and the names of both astronomers appear on a medal which was struck by the French government in 1872 to commemorate the discovery.
This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
Had the internal contacts alone been used, which many astronomers would have considered the proper course, the result would have been 8.776" In 1877 Sir David Gill organized an expedition to the island of Ascension to observe the parallax of Mars with the heliometer.
Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.
Observatories were attached to the temples, and reports were regularly sent by the astronomers to the king.
Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.
It is necessary to remember that by astronomers and by some historians the era is assigned to the preceding day, July 15.
The chief conclusions of astronomers concerning the .spherical figure and dimensions of the earth, its relation to the heavenly bodies, and the great circles of the globe - the equator, the ecliptic and the tropics - were considered as well established.
Think about notable astronomers of centuries past, who collected their own data through years of careful observation.
The Arab astronomers measured a degree on the plains of Mesopotamia, thereby deducing a fair approximation to the size of the earth.
More surprising as the Chinese astronomers are credited with having made use of the gnomon as early as 1000 B.C. for determining latitudes.
Trepidare, to tremble), a term meaning, in general, fear or trembling, but used technically in astronomy for an imagined slow oscillation of the ecliptic, having a period of 7000 years, introduced by the Arabian astronomers to explain a supposed variation in the precession of the equinoxes.
Macpherson, Astronomers of To-Day (1905).
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
As the transit of Venus of 1874 approached, prepara tions were set on foot by the German Government in good time; a commission of the most celebrated astronomers was appointed, and it was resolved that the heliometer should be the instrument chiefly relied on.
The most renowned poets were at the same time men of culture and science, critics, archaeologists, astronomers or physicians.
3, was adapted from that of astronomers by Martin Behaim, c. 1480.
This circumstance appeared so anomalous that some astronomers doubted whether the surviving lines were really due to calcium; but Sir William and Lady Huggins (née Margaret Lindsay Murray, who, after their marriage in 1875, actively assisted her husband) successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that calcium vapour, if at a sufficiently low pressure, gives under the influence of the electric discharge precisely these lines and no others.
Huggins's personal retrospect in the Nineteenth Century for June 1897; "Scientific Worthies," with photogravure portrait (Nature); Astronomers of To-Day, by Hector Macpherson, junr.
An inscription found by Wrede at 'Obne is dated " in the year 120 of the Lion in Heaven, which we must leave the astronomers to explain.
The idea of tracing the sun's path among the stars was, when it occurred to Chaldaean astronomers, an original and, relatively to their means, a recondite one.
The whole system of junction stars was doubtless an imitation of the sieu; the choice of them by the Hindu astronomers of the 6th century A.D.
In this belief he differed from his pupil, Roger Cotes, and from most of the great mathematical astronomers of the 18th century, who worked out in detail the task sketched by the genius of Newton.
This work contains an elaborate account of the phenomena presented by the planet; but although favourably received by astronomers, it had no great sale.
He notes with exultation the 9th of July 1595, as the date of the pseudodiscovery, the publication of which in Prodromus Dissertationum Cosmographicarum seu Mysterium Cosmographicum (Tubingen, 1596) procured him much fame, and a friendly correspondence with the two most eminent astronomers of the time, Tycho Brahe and Galileo.
In July 1628 Kepler accordingly arrived with his family at Sagan in Silesia, where he applied himself to the printing of his ephemerides up to the year 1636, and whence he issued, in 1629, a Notice to the Curious in Things Celestial, warning astronomers of approaching transits.
The year of his birth is uncertain, but Kessler accepts as reliable the statement made by Biruni, that Mani was born in the year 527 of the astronomers of Babylon (A.D.
For nowhere could he have had a better means of consulting the works of historians, geographers and astronomers, such as Eratosthenes, Posidonius, Hipparchus and Apollodorus.
At the same time, he must have learnt much from other contemporaries at Athens, especially from astronomers such as Eudoxus and Callippus, and from orators such as Isocrates and Demosthenes.
Astronomers, after the example of Ptolemy, regard the day as commencing with the sun's culmination, or noon, and find it most convenient for the purposes of computation to reckon through the whole twentyfour hours.
The line derives its name from Charles Mason (1730-1787) and Jeremiah Dixon, two English astronomers, whose survey of to a point about 244 m.
Near by is the hill of Tarqui which the French astronomers chose for their meridian in 1742.
That the sun on midsummer day rises nearly, but not quite, in line with the "avenue" and over the Friar's Heel, has long been advanced as the chief argument in support of the theory that Stonehenge was a temple for sun-worship. On the supposition that this stone was raised to mark exactly the line of sunrise on midsummer's day when the structure was erected, it would naturally follow, owing to well-known astronomical causes, that in the course of time the direction of this line would slowly undergo a change, and that, at any subsequent date since, the amount of deviation would be commensurate with the lapse of time, thus supplying chronological data to astronomers for determining the age of the building.
From the astronomers the Stoics borrowed their picture of the universe - a plenum in the form of a series of layers or concentric rings, first the elements, then the planetary and stellar spheres, massed round the earth as centre - a picture which dominated the imagination of men from the days of Eudoxus down to those of Dante or even Copernicus.
About the same time he was named by the emperor one of the astronomers of the Royal Observatory, which was accordingly his residence till his death, and it was in this capacity that he delivered his remarkably successful series of popular lectures on astronomy, which were continued from 1812 to 1845.
The advances in stellar photography made by Paul and Prosper Henry and others suggested to him the magnificent idea of obtaining, through the collaboration of astronomers in all parts of the world, an autographic picture of the entire sphere containing more than fifty million stars, which should faithfully record in future ages the state of the sky at the end of the i 9th century.
In view of the wide extent and importance of his labours, the variety of subjects of which he treats, ard the unity of purpose which guided him throughout, Simon Newcomb must be considered as one of the most distinguished astronomers of his time.
On assuming the directorship of the Nautical Almanac he became very strongly impressed with the diversity existing in the values of the elements and constants of astronomy adopted by different astronomers, and the injurious effect which it exercised on the precision and symmetry of much astronomical work.
800 and 1004, extracted from Caussin's translation of Ibn Junis, the eclipses and occultations of Bullialdus, Gassendi, and Hevelius, of the French astronomers at Paris and St Petersburg, and of Flamsteed at Greenwich, and deduced a secular acceleration of 8.8", agreeing well with the theoretical value.
From comparisons between the observed places of Arcturus, Aldebaran and Sirius and the places assigned to them by Alexandrian astronomers, he was led to the opinion that all three are moving towards the south (Phil.
One of the problems, which has engaged a large share of the attention of astronomers in the last century, has been the determination of the direction of this " solar motion."