The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
The Astrakhan rebellion (1706), which affected all the districts under his government, shook Peter's confidence in him, and seriously impaired his position.
Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.
A very large industry in Bukhara is the export of Astrakhan lamb skins (called locally Karakul).
After this he revisited Syria and Asia Minor, and crossed the Black sea, the desert from Astrakhan to Bokhara, and the Hindu Kush.
In 1738 John Elton traded between Astrakhan and the Persian port of Enzeli on the Caspian, and undertook to build a fleet for Nadir Shah.
The three Baltic provinces, the nine western governments annexed from Poland by Catherine II., and the Cossack provinces of the Don, Astrakhan, Orenburg and Stavropol.
There is no place in Russia, Archangel and Astrakhan included, where the thermometer does not rise in summer nearly to 86° Fahr.
And 90 days at Astrakhan, the Don for Too to 110 days, and the Dnieper for 83 to 122 days.
In Ryazan, Tambov, Samara, Simbirsk and Penza; (b) the Tatars of Astrakhan at the mouth of the Volga; and (c) those of the Crimea, a great many of whom emigrated to Turkey after the Crimean War (1854-56).
The Mongol race is represented in Russia by the Kalmucks, who inhabit the steppes of Astrakhan between the Volga, the Don and the Kuma.
Of this line, as far as the sandy deserts of Astrakhan and the steppes of N.
The Golden Horde, long weakened by internal dissensions, had now fallen into several khanates, the chief of which were Kazan, Astrakhan and the Crimea.
In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.
On the Sea of Aral it is 80° Fahr.; and at Astrakhan, on the Caspian, more than 50°.
Russian aggression began somewhat early in the r8th century, when Peter the Great, establishing his base at Astrakhan on the Volga, and using the Caspian for bringing up supplies and munitions of war, captured Derbent from the Persians in 1722, and Baku in the following year.
Astrakhan, perhaps extending also into Perm.
A disastrous attack on Astrakhan, with the object of carrying out Sokolli's plan for uniting the' Don and the Volga, first brought the Turks into collision with the Russians.
Russia, stretching between the lower river Don and the Caspian Sea, through the Don Cossacks territory and between the government of Astrakhan on the .N.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
By those of Astrakhan and Saratov.
KALMUCK, or Kalmyk Steppe, a territory or reservation belonging to the Kalmuck or Kalmyk Tatars, in the Russian government of Astrakhan, bounded by the Volga on the N.E., the Manych on the S.W., the Caspian Sea on the E., and the territory of the Don Cossacks on the N.W.
At the beginning of 1668 he defeated the voivode Jakov Bezobrazov, sent against him from Astrakhan, and in the spring embarked on a predatory expedition into Persia which lasted for eighteen months.
In August 1669 he reappeared at Astrakhan, and accepted a fresh offer of pardon from the tsar there; the common people were fascinated by his adventures.
The semi-Asiatic kingdom of Astrakhan, where the whole atmosphere was predatory and nine-tenths of the population were nomadic, was the natural milieu for such a rebellion as Stenka Razin's.
In 1670 Razin, while ostensibly on his way to report himself at the Cossack headquarters on the Don, openly rebelled against the government, captured Cherkask, Tsaritsyn and other places, and on the 24th of June burst into Astrakhan itself.
All who opposed him, and giving the rich bazaars of the city over to pillage, he converted Astrakhan into a Cossack republic, dividing the population into thousands, hundreds and tens, with their proper officers, all of whom were appointed by a vyecha or general assembly, whose first act was to proclaim Stephen Timofeevich their gosudar (sovereign).
After a three weeks' carnival of blood and debauchery Razin quitted Astrakhan with two hundred barges full of troops to establish the Cossack republic along the whole length of the Volga, as a preliminary step towards advancing against Moscow.
At length, in 1598, Baki Mehemet Khan, of the Astrakhan branch of the Timur family, mounted the throne, and thus introduced the dynasty of the Ashtarkhanides.
Besides the original meeting of the bishop and Ahasuerus in 1542 and others referred back to 1 575 in Spain and 1599 at Vienna, the Wandering Jew was stated to have appeared at Prague (1602), at Lubeck (1603), in Bavaria 1604), at Ypres (1623), Brussels (1640), Leipzig (1642), Paris (1644, by the " Turkish Spy "),"), Stamford (1658),(1658), Astrakhan (1672),(1672), and Frankenstein (1678).
The exact limits of the ancient Aralo-Caspian sea are not yet settled, except in the north-west, where the Ergeni Hills of Astrakhan constitute an unmistakable barrier.
Other ports in addition to those just mentioned are Astrakhan, on the Volga; Petrovsk, Derbent and Lenkoran, on the west shore; Enzeli or Resht, and Astarabad, on the Persian coast; and Mikhailovsk, on the east coast.
Wide from Astrakhan to Taganrog on the Sea of Azov.
A plan had been elaborated at Constantinople for uniting the Volga and Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of Janissaries and cavalry were sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov.
But a sortie of the garrison of Astrakhan drove back the besiegers; 15,000 Russians, under Knes Serebianov, attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection; and, finally, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm.
There is more than one meaning of Astrakhan discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
It had prevailed since 17 9 8 in Georgia and the Caucasus, and in1803-1806began to spread from the north of the Caucasus into Russia, till in 1806 it was established at or near Astrakhan, and in 1807 reached Zareff, 200 m.
In the summer of 1877 a disease prevailed in several villages in the neighbourhood of Astrakhan and in the city itself, which was clearly a mild form of plague (pestis minor).
From Astrakhan on the right bank of the Volga, which seem to have puzzled the physicians who first observed them, but on the 30th of November were recognized as being but the same mild plague as had been observed the year before near Astrakhan by Dr Ddppner, chief medical officer of the Cossacks of Astrakhan.
The Astrakhan disease may have been imported from Resht or Baku, or may have been caused concurrently with the epidemics of these places by some cause affecting the basin of the Caspian generally.
The province of Astrakhan, where a very small and limited outbreak occurred in 1878, is politically in Europe, but geographically it belongs rather to Asia.
Three places were affected, namely, Kolobovka, and Krasnoyarsk, in the province of Astrakhan, and Samara, higher up the river.
ASTRAKHAN, a government of S.E.
The government is divided into five districts, the chief towns of which are Astrakhan, Enotayevsk (pop. 2810 in 1897), Krasnyi-yar (4680), Chernyi-yar (5140), and Tsarev FIG.
The Kalmucks and Kirghiz have their own local administrations, and so have the Astrakhan Cossacks (25,600).
Astrakhan, Russia >>
(1070 in a straight line), falls into the Caspian at Astrakhan: It is by far the longest river of Europe, the x xvriz.
Below Astrakhan navigation is difficult, and on the sand-bars at the mouth the maximum depth is only 12 ft.
The greater part of the traffic is up river, the amount of merchandise which reaches Astrakhan being nearly fifteen times less than that reaching St Petersburg by the Volga canals.
The downriver traffic consists chiefly of manufactured goods and timber, the latter mostly for the treeless governments of Samara, Saratov and Astrakhan, as well as for the region adjacent to the lower course of the Don.
Bogolyubov, The Volga from Tver to Astrakhan (Russian, 1876); H.
Asiatic Russia of the I9th century, rides and inclusive of the Caucasus, Astrakhan and the lower Voiga, and overrunning Mesopotamia, Syria, 4 .~
(2) The Astrakhan Tatars (about 10,000) are, with the Mongol Kalmucks, all that now remains of the once so powerful Astrakhan empire.
They constitute ten separate voiskos, settled along the frontiers: Don, Kuban, Terek, Astrakhan, Ural, Orenburg, Siberian, Semiryechensk, Amur and Usuri.
ASTRAKHAN, a town of E.
Russia, capital of the government of Astrakhan, on the left bank of the main channel of the Volga, 50 m.
Since the growth of the petroleum industry of Baku and the construction of the Transcaspian railway, Astrakhan has become an important commercial centre, exporting fish, caviare, sugar, metals, naphtha, cottons and woollens, and importing grain, cotton, fruit and timber, to the aggregate value of £8,250,000 with foreign countries and of £14,500,doo with the interior of Russia.
The town gives its name to the "fur" called "astrakhan," the skin of the new-born Persian lamb, and so to an imitation in rough woollen cloth.
Astrakhan is the chief port on the Caspian Sea and the headquarters of the Russian Caspian fleet.
Astrakhan was anciently the capital of a Tatar state, and stood some 7 m.
In 1670 it was seized by the rebel Stenka Razin; early in the following century Peter the Great constructed here a shipbuilding yard and made Astrakhan the base for his hostilities against Persia, and later in the same century Catherine II.
In 1554 Astrakhan fell almost without a blow.
Astrakhan) lamb-skins and carpets.