A tribe living on the banks of the Nile between Wadi Halfa and Assuan are called Barabra.
Cowley, Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan (1906), and those cited above (p. 282, n.
The stretch of land between Assuan (Syene) and Maharraka (Hiera Sycaminus) was, however, regarded as belonging to the Roman empire, and Roman cohorts were stationed at the latter place.
It may be taken to include the Nile valley from Assuan near the First Cataract southwards to the confluence of the White and Blue Niles, stretching in this direction for about 560 m.
These Bosnians (Kalaji as they called themselves) settled in the country and intermarried with the Arabs and Nubians, their descendants still holding lands between Assuan and Derr.
Of the Nilotic as distinguished from the Kordofan branch of the Nuba language there are three principal dialects current from Assuan along the Nile southwards to Meroc, as under: I.
3 The form Yahu, or Yaho, occurs not only in composition, but by itself; see Aramaic Papyri discovered at Assuan, B 4, 6, I I; E 24; J 6.
The barrage at the head of the Nile delta, and the regulating sluices across the Nile at Assiut and Esna in Upper Egypt below Assuan, are examples of draw-door weirs, with their numerous openings closed by sluice-gates sliding on free rollers, which control the discharge of water from the river for irrigation.
Haifa is the northern terminus of the Sudan railway and the southern terminus of a steamboat service on the Nile, which, running to Shellal (Assuan), connects there with the Egyptian railways.
Deepand Assuan (First Cataract), the course of the river is interrupted by outcrops of granites and other crystalline rocks, which have been uncovered by the, erosion of the overlying sandstone, and to-day form the mass of islands, with numerous small rapids, which are described not very accurately as cataracts; no good evidence exists in support of the view that they are the remains of a massive barrier, broken down and carried away by some sudden convulsion.
North of Assuan it is called the Libyan Desert.
The oldest rocks, consisting of crystalline schists with numerous intrusions of granite, porphyry and diorite, occupy the eastern portion of the country between the Nilesouth of Assuan and the Red Sea.
At Assuan (Syene) the well-known syenite of Werner occurs.
The quarries of Syene (Assuan) are famous for extremely har~ and durable red granite (syenite), and have been worked since the days of the earliest Pharaohs.
Large quantities of this syenite were used in building the Assuan dam (1898-1902).
Thus at Assuan the mean maximum is Ii8 F., the mean minimum 42 F.
At Assuan the mean value for the year is only 38%, that for the summer being 29%, and for the winter 51%; while for Wadi Haifa the mean is 32%, and 20% and 42% are the mean values for summer and winter respectively.
From the few observations that exist, it seems that farther south the southern winter winds decrease rapidly, becoming westerly, until at Assuan and Wadi Haifa the northerly winds are almost invariable throughout the year.
Of Cairo, and Luxor and Assuan in Upper Egypt.
The chief towns on the Nile, taking them in their order in ascending the river from Cairo, are Beni Suef, Minia, Assiut, Akhmim, Suhag, Girga, Kena, Luxor, Esna, Edfu, Assuan and Korosko.
Assuan (q.v.), pop. 12,618, is at the foot of the First Cataract and 551 m.
By river above Assuan, is a small place notable as the northern terminus of the caravan route from the Sudan across the Nubian desert.
Syene stood near to where the town of Assuan now is; opposite, on an island in the Nile, are scanty ruins of the city of Elephantine, and a little above, on another island, is the temple of Pbilae.
Above Assuan and 685 m.
(Assuan) and the Sudan frontier it is the only means of communication.
The Nuba, Nubians or Berberin, inhabitants of the Nile valley between Assuan and Dongola.
Of these the most notable was the construction (1898-1902) of the Assuan dam, which by bringing more land under cultivation permanently increased the resources of the country and widened the area of taxation.
The admirably conducted Archaeological Survey of the portion of Nubia threatened by the raising of the Assuan dam is in the charge of another departmentthe Survey department, directed for many years up to 1909 by Captain H.
Farther south are the stupendous ruins of Thebes on both sides of the river, the temple of Esna, the ruins and tombs of El Kab, the temple of Edfu, the quarries of Silsila and the temple of Ombos, followed by the inscribed rocks of the First Cataract, the tombs and quarries of Assuan and the temples of Philae.
Financial transactions by Jews settled at the southern extremity of Egypt, at Assuan, are found as early as the reign of Artaxerxes.
The red granite school of Assuan comes lower, the work being usually clumsy and with unfinished corners and details.
His son-in-law, Abul-Dhahab, was sent to subject the Haww~rah, who had occupied the land between Assuan and Assiut, and a force of 20,000 was sent to conquer Yemen.
Baring forcibly argued against British intervention in the affairs of the Sudan, and on the 13th of December Lord Granville telegraphed that Her Majestys government recommend the ministers of khedive to come to an early decision to abandon all territory south of Assuan, or, at least, of Wadi Haifa.
The protection of the frontier was now left in the hands of the Egyptian army, a British force remaining at Assuan, 200 m.
The completion of the Assuan dam by ensuring a fuller supply of water enabled 20,000 acres of land, previously unirrigated and untaxed, to be brought under cultivation in the three years 1903-1905.
(London, 1892), a valuable contribution as to the condition of the province at that date, its connexion with Lake Moeris and its possibilities in the future; The Assuan Reservoir and Lake Moeris (London, 1904), by Sir William Willcocks - with text in English, French and Arabic - a consideration of irrigation possibilities; The Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt, by H.
Reclaimed by the Nile works at Assuan and Assiut).
Sayce and Cowley, Araman Papyri discovered at Assuan I906), and the coins minted by the satraps and generals usually bear an Aramaic inscription.
ASSUAN, or Aswan, a town of Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile, facing Elephantine Island below the First Cataract, and 590 m.
Popular among Europeans as a winter health resort and tourist centre, Assuan is provided with large modern hotels (one situated on Elephantine Island), and there is an English church.
Three and a half miles above the town, at the beginning of the Cataract, the Assuan Dam stretches across the Nile.
As the southern frontier town of Egypt proper, Assuan in times of peace was the entrepot of a considerable trade with the Sudan and Abyssinia, and in 1880 its trade was valued at 4.2,Ooo,000 annually.
During the Mandia (1884-1898) Assuan was strongly garrisoned by Egyptian and British troops.
Since the defeat of the khalifa at Omdurman and the fixing (1899) of the Egyptian frontier farther south, the military value of Assuan has declined.
Cowley, Aramaic Papyri discovered at Assuan (Oxford, 1906); E.
Willcocks, The Nile Reservoir Dam at Assuan (London, 1901).
PHILAE, an islet in the Nile above the First Cataract, of great beauty and interest, but since the completion of the Assuan dam in 1902 submerged except for a few months yearly during High Nile (July to October), when the water is allowed to run freely through the sluices of the Assuan dam.
Philae is the nearest island to the point where the ancient desert road from Assuan rejoins the river south of the cataract.
The little island won great favour as a religious resort, not only for the Egyptians and the Ethiopians and others who frequented the border district and the market of Assuan, but also for Greek and Roman visitors.
Lyons, A Report on the Island and Temples of Philae (Cairo, 1896), with numerous plans and photographs; a seco!.d report, A Report on the Temples of Philae (1908), deals with the condition of the ruins as affected by the immersions occasioned by the filling of the Assuan dam; Baedeker's Egypt; and on the effects of the submersion, &c., reports in Annales du service des antiquite's, vols.
Being informed that at Syene (Assuan), on the day of the summer solstice at noon, a well was lit up through all its depth, so that Syene lay on the tropic, he measured, at the same hour,the zenith distance of the sun at Alexandria.
In connexion with the Khartum-Halfa railway steamers ply on the Nile between Haifa and Shellal (Assuan) where the railway from Alexandria ends.
The work which had been begun by Cailliaud, Champollion, Lepsius and others was interrupted by the rise of the Mandist power; and with the frontiers of Egypt itself menaced by dervishes, the country south of Aswan (Assuan) was necessarily closed to the student of antiquity.