Its culminating point is toward the western extremity of the Mantiqueira range where the Itatiaya, or Itatiaia-assu, peak rises to an elevation of 8898 ft.
The more important rivers of the first division, which are described in more detail under the titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the following: the Gurupy, Tury-assu, Mearim, Itapicuru and Balsas, in the state of Maranhao; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy; Jaguaribe in Ceara; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
Long - and five from Piauhy, the Urussuhy-assu, Gurgueia, Caninde, Poty and Longa.
The largest of the Amazon species are the jacare-assu (Caiman niger), jacare (C. fissipes) and jacaretinga (C, sclerops).
The Amazon is also the home of one of the largest fresh-water turtles known, the Emys amazonica, locally called the jurara-assu or tartaruga grande.
The principal rivers of the state are the Maracassume and Tury-assu, the Mearim and its larger tributaries (the Pindare, Grajahu, Flores and Corda) which discharge into the Bay of Sao Marcos, and the Itapicuru and Monim which discharge into the Bay of Sao Jose.
Besides Sao Luiz, the capital of the state, the principal towns, with the population of their municipal districts in 1890, are: Caxias (19443), Alcantara (4730), Carolina (7266), Grajahu (11,704), Tury-assu (8983) and Viana (9965).
The largest, attaining an enormous bulk and a length of 20 ft., is the C. niger, the jacare-assu or large caiman of the Amazons.