There are (I) the maison darrlt, temporary places of durance in every arrondissement for persons charged with offences, and those sentenced to more than a years imprisonment who are awaiting transfer to a maison centrale; (2) the maison de justice, often part and parcel of the former, but only existing in the assize court towns for the safe custody of those tried or condemned at the assizes; (3) departmental prisons, or inaisons de correction, for summary convictions, or those sentenced to less than a year, or, if provided with sufficient cells, those amenable to separate confinement; (4) maisons centrales and pnitenciers agricoles, for all sentenced to imprisonment for more than a year, or to hard labor, or to those condemned to travaux forces for offences committed in prison.
The only town charter is one of 1567-1568, in which Queen Elizabeth confirms an ancient privilege of the burgesses that they should not be upon assizes or juries with strangers, relating to matters outside the town.
The assizes are held at Enniskillen, quarter sessions at Enniskillen and Newtownbutler.
439) Other traces occur in the Acts of Uniformity, which make offences of depraving the Book of Common Prayer triable at Assizes (between 23 Eliz.
This time the family refused to condone his proceedings; he was tried with his confederates at Lancaster assizes, March 1827, convicted, and sentenced to three years' imprisonment in Newgate.
The town, though frequently the centre for medieval assizes and inquisitions, never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, but was governed by two constables, elected in the manorial court.
The county is in the Midland circuit, and assizes are held at Derby.
The assizes for Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire were held at Nottingham until the reign of Henry III., when they were held alternately at Nottingham and Derby until 1569, after which the Derbyshire assizes were held at Derby.
Like the high court, the court of burgesses had also its assizes 4 - a body of unwritten legal 4 As was noticed above, there were apparently separate assizes for the three principalities, in addition to the assizes of the kingdom.
The assizes of Antioch have been discovered and published.
The assizes of the kingdom itself are twofold - the assizes of the high court and the assizes of the court of burgesses.
(I) The assizes of the high court are preserved for us in works by legists - John of Ibelin, Philip of Novara and Geoffrey of Tort - composed in the 13th century.
(2) The assizes of the court of burgesses became the basis of a treatise at an earlier date than the assizes of the high court.
The date of the redaction (which was probably made by some learned burgess) may well have been the reign of Baldwin III., as Kugler suggests: he was the first native king, and a king learned in the law; but Beugnot would refer the assizes to the years immediately preceding Saladin's capture of Jerusalem.
These assizes do not, of course, appear in Ibelin, who was only concerned with the feudal law of the high court.
They were used, like the assizes of the high court, in Cyprus; and, like the other assizes, they were made the subject of investigation in 1531, with the object of discovering a good text.
The law which is expounded in these assizes is a mixture of Frankish law with the Graeco-Roman law of the Eastern empire which prevailed among the native population of Syria.
In regard to both assizes, it, is most important to bear in mind that we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals - records made by lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and supported by legal arguments and citations of cases.
The assizes may speak of patriarch and king as conjoint seigneurs in Jerusalem; but as a matter of fact the king could secure the nomination of his own patriarch, and after Dagobert the patriarchs are, with the temporary exception of Stephen in 1128, the confidants and supporters of the kings.
By the assizes of the high court, the widow, on the death of her husband, took half of the estate for herself, and half in guardianship for her children.
Absentee landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin (pp. 327-331) The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to the Syrians.
In any case, he is the founder of the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (for he afterwards sold his new acquisition to Guy de Lusignan, who established a dynasty in the island); and thereby he made possible the survival of the institutions and assizes of Jerusalem, which were continued in Cyprus until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
In the second place, as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem fell, its institutions and assizes were transplanted bodily to Cyprus, where they survived until the island was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
This in itself was a serious matter; according to the assizes, the barons maintained, the king must either personally reside in the kingdom, or, in the event of his absence, be replaced by a regency.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
Under the head of laws come the assizes of the Kingdom, edited by Beugnot in the Recueil des historiens des croisades; and the assizes of Antioch, printed at Venice in 1876.
Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and H.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a lycee for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.
Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
The great sessions for the county were during their whole existence from 1542 to 1830 held at Cardiff, but the assizes (which replaced them) have since then been held at Swansea and Cardiff alternately, as also are the quarter sessions for Glamorgan.
As capital of an arrondissement, Bastia is the seat of a tribunal of first instance and a sub-prefect, while it is also the seat of the military governor of Corsica, of a court of appeal for the whole island, of a court of assizes, and of a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, and has a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, and a library with between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes.
Besancon is important as the seat of an archbishopric, a court of appeal and a court of assizes, as centre of an academie (educational division), as seat of a prefect and as headquarters of the VIIth army corps.
The savage reprisals on their suppression, in especial the "Bloody Assizes" of Jeffreys, produced a revulsion of public feeling.
Assizes, was established by an act of 1834.
His Son, Auguste Arthur Beugnot (1797-1865), was an historian and scholar, who published an Essai sur les institutions de Saint Louis (1821), Histoire de la destruction du paganisme en occident (2 vols., 1885), and edited the Olim of the parlement of Paris, the Assizes of Jerusalem, and the Coutumes de Beauvoisis of Philippe de Beaumanoir.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a court of assizes and a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee for boys, a communal college and a training college for girls, and an ecclesiastical seminary.
Assizes are held at Armagh, and quarter sessions at Armagh,Ballybot, Lurgan,Markethill and Newtown-Hamilton.
The town is important as the seat of a prefecture, a bishopric, a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and as centre of an academie (educational district).
Richard transferred the assizes from Launceston to Lostwithiel.
In 1386 the assizes were transferred back to Launceston.
Chaumont is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a branch of the Bank of France.
Douai is the seat of a court of appeal, a court of assizes and a subprefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Auch is the seat of an archbishopric, a prefect and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges, a school of design, a branch of the Bank of France and an important lunatic asylum.
The county is in the south-eastern circuit, and assizes are held at Maidstone.
The assizes for the county were held in the reign of Henry III.
The town, which is the seat of an archbishop and court of appeal, and the centre of an academie (educational circumscription), numbers among its public institutions a court of assizes, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
A chancery and exchequer for the counties of Brecknock and Radnor were also established at Brecon Castle, and from 1542 till 1830 the great sessions, and since then the assizes, and at all times the quarter sessions for the county, have been held at Brecon.
Assizes are held at Castlebar, and quarter sessions at Ballina, Ballinrobe, Belmullet, Castlebar, Claremorris, Swineford and Westport.
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.