A, Cell (individual) of the unicellular Green Alga Pleurococcus, as an example of an undifferentiated autonomous assimilating cell.
Con.) green assimilating cortical branches, which are the ends of branches from the medulla and fit tightly together, forming the continuous surface of the plant.
F, Section through the surface tissue of the Brown Alga Cutleria multifida, showing the surface layer of assimilating cells densely packed with phaeoplasts.
(p) Assimilating (palisade) cells.
Sp., Assimilating (spongy) cells with large lacunae.
In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.
It is from such a living and assimilating cell, performing as it does all the vital functions of a green plant, that, according to current theory, all the different cell-forms of a higher plant have been differentiated in the course of descent.
In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.
In all cases, while the internal threads which bear the cortical branches consist of elongated cells with few chromatophores, and no doubt serve mainly for conduction of food substances, the superficial cells of the branches themselves are packed with chromatophores and form the chief assimilating tissue of the plant.
Of supporting axes from assimilating appendages, and as the body increases in size and becomes a solid mass of cells or interwoven threads, a corresponding differentiation of a superficial assimilative system from the deep-lying parts.
They serve to conduct water through the thallus, the assimilating parts of which are in these forms often raised above the soil and are comparatively remote from the rhizoid-bearing (water-absorbing) region.
As such its consideration falls outside the scheme of this article, but in one small and peculiar group of these plants, the Anthoceroteae, a distinct assimilating and transpiring system is found in the wall of the very long cylindrical capsule, clearly rendering the sporo-.
M and thin, flat, assimilating, and transpiring appendages osses.
The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells.
Frequently, also, a considerable differentiation of vegetative tissue occurs in the wall of the spore-capsule itself, and in some of the higher forms a special assimilating and transpiring organ situated just below the capsule at the top of the seta, with a richly lacunar chlorophyllous parenchyma and stomata like those of the wall of the capsule in the Anthocerotean liverworts.
From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.
The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.
Which is essentially a parenchymatous tissue containing chloroplasts, and is penetrated by a system of intercellular spaces so that the surfaces of the assimilating cells are brought into contact with air to as large an extent as possible, in order to facilitate gaseous interchange between the assimilating cells and the atmosphere.
The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes perpendicular to the surface (palisade tissue).
These bundle sheaths are important in the conduction of carbohydrates away from the assimilating cells to other parts of the plant.
In the blade of a typical leaf of a vascular plantessentially a thin plate of assimilating tissuethe vascular system takes the form of a number of separate, usually branching and anastomosing strands.
Miners) tunnel into the leaf parenchyma, and so put the assimilating areas out of action in another way.
Switch plants, such as Retama Retam and broom (Cytisus scoparius), have reduced leaves and some assimilating tissue in their stems; and stomata occur in grooves on the stem.
So various are the conditions of selfregulation in various animals, both in respect of their peculiar and several modes of assimilating different foods, and of protecting themselves against particular dangers from without, that, as we might have expected, the bloods taken from different species, or even perhaps from different individuals, are found to be so divergent that the healthy serum of one species may be, and often is, poisonous to another; not so much in respect of adventitious substances, as because the phases of physiological change in different species do not harmonize; each by its peculiar needs has been modified until, in their several conditions of life, they vary so much about the mean as to have become almost if not quite alien one to another.
Strickland established a new system of education based on the principle of beginning from the bottom, by teaching to read and write in Maltese as the medium for assimilating, at a further stage, either English or Italian, one at a time, and aiming at imparting general knowledge in colloquial English.
This habit of assimilating what pleased me and giving it out again as my own appears in much of my early correspondence and my first attempts at writing.