The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.
The most extensive peat-workings are in the valleys of the Somme; asphalt comes from Seyssel (Am) and Puyde-Dme.
The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.
They may consist of earth with a retaining wall along the tracks and with the surface gravelled or paved with stone or asphalt, or they may be constructed entirely of timber, or they may be formed of stone slabs supported on longitudinal walls.
Descriptions of the solid forms will be found in the articles on asphalt or asphaltum, albertite, elaterite, gilsonite, hatchettite and ozokerite.
Wide, paved with brick and asphalt, and well shaded.
This quarter has been pierced by several straight roads, one of which, crossing the Mahmudiya canal by the Pont Neuf, leads to Gabbari, the most westerly part of the city and an industrial and manufacturing region, possessing asphalt works and oil, rice and paper mills.
Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.
Small amounts of asphalt have been sent to the United States.
Valuable salt is obtained from the pits at Dolnja Tuzla, and the southern part of Herzegovina yields asphalt and lignite.
To 132 ft.); are paved chiefly with Medina dressed stone, brick and asphalt; and, like the parks, are so well shaded by maples, elms and other trees, that Cleveland has become known as the "Forest City."
Sulphur, arsenic, asphalt and petroleum exist.
Copper is mined and extensive deposits of petroleum and asphalt are being exploited.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Other novelists belonging to this school are: Desiderius Malonyai (Az utolso, " The Last "; Judith konyve, " The Book of Judith "; Tanulmdnyfejek, "Typical Heads "); Julius Pekar (Dodo fohadnagy problemai, " Lieutenant Dodo's Problems "; Az aranykesztyus kisasszony, " The Maid with the Golden Gloves "; A szoborszep asszony, " The Lady as Beautiful as a Statue "; Az esztendo legenddja, " The Legend of the Year "); Thomas Kobor (Aszfalt, " Asphalt "; 0 akarta, " He Wanted It "; A csillagok fele, " Towards the Stars "); Stephen Szomahazy (Huszonnegy Ora, " Twenty-four Hours "; A Clairette Keringd, " The Clairette Valse "; Pdratlan szerddk, " Incomparable Wednesdays "; Nydri felhok, " Clouds of Summer "); Zoltan Thury (Ullrich fdhadnagy es egyeb tortenetek, " Lieutenant Ullrich and other Tales "; Urak es parasztok, " Gentlemen and Peasants "); also Desiderius Szomory, Odon Gero, Arpad Abonyi, Koloman Szanto, Edward Sas, Julius Vertesi, Tibor Denes, Akos Pinter, the Misses Janka and Stephanie Wohl, Mrs Sigismund Gyarmathy and others.
The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.
Asphalt is taken from several deposits - from Maracaibo, Cumana and Pedernales in the Orinoco delta.
The only other mineral product is manjak, a species of asphalt, also found in this district and to some extent exported.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
The main exports were asphalt and calcium carbide.
Salt is also found in large quantities; but mining and quarrying are not practised on a large scale; only lead, lignite and asphalt being worked.
Outside the Indian districts of the eastern and southern outskirts, the streets are paved with asphalt and stone, lighted with electricity and gas, and served with an efficient street railway service.
The implements found in the relic bed under it were axe-heads of stone, with their haftings of stag's horn and wood; a flint saw, set in a handle of fir wood and fastened with asphalt; flint flakes and arrow-heads; harpoons of stag's horn with barbs; awls, needles, chisels, fish-hooks and other implements of bone; a comb of yew wood 5 in.
Besides the above, the mineral resources of Mexico include coal, petroleum, asphalt, platinum, graphite, soda and marble.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
The Appalachian field (Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Tennessee) produces oil rich in paraffin, practically free from sulphur and asphalt, and yielding the largest percentage of gasoline and illuminating oils.
The California field produces oil characterized by much asphalt and little or no paraffin, and low in volatile constituents.
The Lima (Ohio)-Indiana, the Illinois, the Mid-Continent (Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas) and the Gulf (Texas and Louisiana) fields produce oils containing more or less of sulphur and asphalt between the extremes of the two other fields just mentioned.
Glass and other sands and gravel ($13,270,032), lime ($11,091,186), phosphate rock ($10,653,558), salt ($7,553,632), natural mineral waters ($7,287,269), sulphur ($6,668,215, almost wholly from Louisiana), slate ($6,316,8 I7), gypsum ($4,138,560), clay ($2,599,986), asphalt ($1,888,881), talc and soapstone ($1,401,222), borax ($975,000, all from California), and pyrite ($857,113) were the next most important products in 1908.
The once flourishing cloth and woollen trades have declined, but there are large breweries, roperies, potteries, and, in the neighbourhood, marble, granite, asphalt and lime works.
MUMMY (from the Persian mumiai, pitch or asphalt), a dead body, as preserved by the ancient Egyptian method of embalming.
The name, as has been pointed out above, is derived from the Persian mumiai, meaning pitch or asphalt, which substance occurs frequently in the prescriptions of the Greek and Roman medical writers.
- and nearly all intersect at right angles; they are paved with brick and asphalt, and many in the residential quarters are shaded with fine elms and maples.
Besides salt, the asphalt mining industry may be mentioned.
Above the sea in a cotton and grain producing region, in which cattle are raised and fruit and vegetables grown; coal, oil, natural gas and rock asphalt (which is used for paving the streets of Ardmore) are found in the vicinity.
He was wounded and taken prisoner by Antigonus, who pardoned him and appointed him superintendent of the asphalt beds in the Dead Sea.
The corpse was treated with natron and asphalt, and wound in a copious swathing of linen bandage, with a mask of linen and stucco on the face.
Among other mineral products, asphalt is found at Bahrein; coal 30 m.
Catania has a considerable export trade in sulphur, pumice stone, asphalt, oranges and lemons, almonds, filberts, cereals, wine (the total production of wine in the province amounted to 28,600,000 gallons in 1905) and oil.
The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places in the southern part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao; gold in Lombije and Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama.
It possesses unlimited supplies, as yet not greatly exploited, of fine building stones, some oil and asphalt, and related bituminous products, a few precious and semi-precious stones (especially tourmalines, beryls and aquamarines found near Canyon near the Royal Gorge of the Arkansas river), rare opalized and jasperized wood (in the eastern part of the El Paso county), considerable wealth of lead and copper, enormous fields of bituminous coal, and enormous wealth of the precious metals.
Asphalt occurs in the high north rim of Middle Park (c. 10,000 ft.).
Lignite occurs at many points around Coimbra, Leiria and Santarem; asphalt abounds near Alcobaca; phosphorite, asbestos and sulphur are common south of the Tagus.
The less important thoroughfares are mostly paved with the so-called Vienna paving, granite bricks of medium size, while the principal streets, and especially those upon which the traffic is heavy, have either asphalt or wood paving.
The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
Asphalt, whether a natural product or artificially obtained, as, for example, in some chemical manufactures, is a most useful material if properly employed in connexion with reservoir dams. Under sudden impact it is brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture like glass; but under continued pressure it has the properties of a viscous fluid.
The rate of flow is largely dependent upon the proportion of bitumen it contains, and is of course retarded by mixing it with sand and stone to form what is commonly called asphalt concrete.
Thus they not only penetrate all cavities in an exceedingly intrusive manner, but exert pressures in all directions, which, owing to the density of the asphalt, are more than 40 greater than would be produced by a corresponding depth of water.
This action is obviously much reduced where the rock sides of the valley rise slowly; but in cases where the rock is very steep, the safest course is to face the facts, and not to depend for water-tightness upon the cementing of the masonry to the rock, but rather to provide a vertical key, or dowel joint, of some material like asphalt, which will always remain water-tight.
Other bricks laid on thin asphalt, upon a concrete FIG.