Fructification of the fungus, entire and in section; the latter shows the asci containing ascospores, much enlarged.
The hypothecium is the basal part of the apothecium on which the hymenium is borne; the latter consists of asci (thecae) with ascospores, and paraphyses.
The Ascolichenes are again divided into Pyrenocarpeae or Pyrenolichenes and Gymnocarpeae or Discolichenes; the first having an ascocarp of the nature of a perithecium, the second bearing their ascospores in an open apothecium.
In young asci a similar fusion of two nuclei occurs, and also in basidia, in each case the nucleus of the ascus or of the basidium resulting from the fusion subsequently giving rise by division to the nuclei of the ascospores and basidiospores respectively.
Zygospores, oospores, brand-spores, aecidiospores, ascospores, basidiospores, &c. Little or nothing is gained by these definitions, however, which are especially physiological.
Then by a special method, described first by Harper, a mass of protoplasm is cut out round each nucleus; thus eight uninucleate ascospores are formed by free-cell formation.
Under other conditions, of which the temperature is an important one, the nucleus in the yeast-cell divides, and each daughter-nucleus again, and four spores are formed in the mother cell, a process obviously comparable to the typical development of ascospores in an ascus.
The ascospores escape from the asci in various ways, sometimes by a special ejaculation-mechanism.
They are characterized by an ascocarp without any opening to the exterior, the ascospores being set free by the decay or rupture of the ascocarp wall; such a fruit-body is termed a cleistothecium (cleistocarp).
Heteroica, is heteroecious; the ascospores infecting the leaves of Vaccinium uliginosum, while the conidia which then arise infect only Ledum palustre.
These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.
Just as the uredospores and aecidiospores both show these specialized characters in the case of Puccinia graminis so we find that both the conidia and ascospores of E.