Mucor, Exoasci, Ustilagineae, higher Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); and (2) the question as to the physiological nature and meaning of fermentation.
The Ascomycetes, Rust Fungi, &c., the same structure obtains so far as all essential details are concerned.
In 1865 De Bary suggested the possibility that such lichens as Collema, Ephebe, &c., arose as a result of the attack of parasitic Ascomycetes upon the algae, Nostoc, Chroococcus, &c. In 1867 the observations of Famintzin and Baranetzky showed that the gonidia, in certain cases, were able to live outside the lichen-thallus, and in the case of Physcia, Evernia and Cladonia were able to form zoospores.
Contrary to the behaviour of the non-lichen forming Ascomycetes the lichen-fungi show very few cases of ordinary conidial formation.
We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens, the perithecium and apothecium; the first when the fungal element is a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division.
In these cases we should expect to find some reduced process of fertilization similar to that of Humaria granulata among the ordinary Ascomycetes, where in the absence of the antheridia the female nuclei fuse in pairs.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
It has been accepted for some time now that the majority of the fungi proper fall into three main groups, the Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, the Schizomycetes and Myxomycetes (Mycetozoa) being considered as independent groups not coming under the true fungi.
The scheme of Brefeld, which was based on the view that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes were completely asexual and that these two groups had been derived from one division (Zygomycetes) of the Phycomycetes, has been very widely accepted.
It is also possible in the absence of satisfactory intermediate forms that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes have also been derived from the algae independently of the Phycomycetes, and perhaps of one another.
On this basis, with other interesting morphological comparisons, Brefeld erected his hypothesis, now untenable, that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes diverge from the Zygomycetes, the former having particularly specialized the ascus (sporangial) mode of reproduction, the latter having specialized the conidial (indehiscent one-spored sporangiole) mode.
The majority of the forms which were formerly included in this group have been shown to be either true Phycomycetes (like A scoidea) or true Ascomycetes (like Thelebolus).
Eremascus and Dipodascus, which are often placed among the Hemiasci, possibly do not belong to the Ascomycetes series at all.
The sporangium with its endogenous spores has been compared with an ascus, and on these grounds the group is placed among the Ascomycetes - a very doubtful association.
This suggests a possible relationship to Eremascus, which can only doubtfully be placed in the Ascomycetes (vide supra).
- The other divisions of the Ascomycetes may be distinguished as Carpoascomycetes because they do not bear the asci free on the mycelium but enclosed in definite fruit bodies or ascocarps.
The Ascomycetes, at least the Carpoascomycetes, exhibit a well-marked alternation of sexual and asexual generations.
In this point and in their method of fertilization theLaboulbeniineae suggest a possible relationship of Ascomycetes and the Red Algae.
Rutilans, among the Ascomycetes) in which, however, the actual fusion (normally, in a sexual process, occurring immediately after association) is delayed until the formation of the basidium.