All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen to their assessed wealth.
In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
One of the main questions in dispute is whether artisans were excluded from the gild merchant.
Engineer Mackay the native artisans had learnt to repair arms and use European tools.
Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
They were established at a time when industry was not free, and the government fixed the number of artisans of every kind of trade in each town, no one having 'the right to increase that number.
Numbers of English artisans and shipbuilders, Swedish ironfounders, German engineers and French manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry by their example.
- The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.
It was customary for the victor after a successful raid to carry off skilled artisans as captives.
In 675 Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass-workers from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed to the bishop of Mainz to send him artisans to manufacture " windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant and helpless."
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
The class of dealers or merchants, as distinguished from trading artisans, also greatly increased and established separate fraternities.
- A craft gild usually comprised all the artisans in a single branch of industry in a particular town.
With the expansion of trade and industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded together for mutual protection.
In some towns the victory of the artisans in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic constitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis.
Even if there had been motives for uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened.
Hence they should not be confused with the old gild merchant, which originally comprised both merchants and artisans, and had the whole monopoly of the trade of the town.
The formation of these societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class of artisans - a conflict between employers, or master artisans, and workmen.
Many find employment as artisans, small dealers, porters and soldiers in Egypt, where they are usually noted for their honesty, and frank and cheerful temperament.
Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste.
The mestizos of the coast are usually traders, artisans, overseers, petty officers and clerks, and small politicians.
As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the principal hotels.
Two years of incessant labor with relays of artisans working steadily throughout the twenty-four hours were required to finish this piece.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
Except for the statement in Bede that the French artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the 13th century.
The expulsion of the duke of Athens was followed by several measures to humble the grandi still further, while the popolo minuto or artisans began to show signs of discontent at the rule of the merchants, and thepopulace destroyed the houses of many nobles.
As has already been intimated, however, many artisans probably belonged both to their own craft fraternity and to the gild merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen and their societies.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
In the course of time, therefore, the small towns came to be better represented proportionally than the large cities, and the growing class of artisans was entirely disfranchised.