All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen to their assessed wealth.
Sent Syrian artisans to Egypt.
In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
One of the main questions in dispute is whether artisans were excluded from the gild merchant.
Engineer Mackay the native artisans had learnt to repair arms and use European tools.
The class of dealers or merchants, as distinguished from trading artisans, also greatly increased and established separate fraternities.
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
With the expansion of trade and industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded together for mutual protection.
Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
They were established at a time when industry was not free, and the government fixed the number of artisans of every kind of trade in each town, no one having 'the right to increase that number.
Numbers of English artisans and shipbuilders, Swedish ironfounders, German engineers and French manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry by their example.
- The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.
It was customary for the victor after a successful raid to carry off skilled artisans as captives.
In 675 Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass-workers from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed to the bishop of Mainz to send him artisans to manufacture " windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant and helpless."
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
- A craft gild usually comprised all the artisans in a single branch of industry in a particular town.
In some towns the victory of the artisans in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic constitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis.
Even if there had been motives for uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened.
Hence they should not be confused with the old gild merchant, which originally comprised both merchants and artisans, and had the whole monopoly of the trade of the town.
The formation of these societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class of artisans - a conflict between employers, or master artisans, and workmen.
Many find employment as artisans, small dealers, porters and soldiers in Egypt, where they are usually noted for their honesty, and frank and cheerful temperament.
Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste.
The mestizos of the coast are usually traders, artisans, overseers, petty officers and clerks, and small politicians.
As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the principal hotels.
Two years of incessant labor with relays of artisans working steadily throughout the twenty-four hours were required to finish this piece.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
Except for the statement in Bede that the French artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the 13th century.
The expulsion of the duke of Athens was followed by several measures to humble the grandi still further, while the popolo minuto or artisans began to show signs of discontent at the rule of the merchants, and thepopulace destroyed the houses of many nobles.
As has already been intimated, however, many artisans probably belonged both to their own craft fraternity and to the gild merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen and their societies.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
In the course of time, therefore, the small towns came to be better represented proportionally than the large cities, and the growing class of artisans was entirely disfranchised.
Against this blemishwhich is in process of gradual correction the fact has to be set that the better class of merchants, the whole of the artisans and the laboring classes in general, obey canons of probity fully on a level with the best to be found elsewhere.
Her artists and artisans alike aim at symmetry, not by an equal division of parts, as we do, but rather by a certain balance of corresponding parts, each different from the other, and not numerically even, with an effect of variety and freedom from formality.
Very soon, however, the artisans of Nagoya (Owari), Yokohama and Tokyowhere the art had been taken upfound that faithful and fine workmanship did not pay.
The dissidents had no political rights, and their religious liberties had also been unjustly restricted; but two-thirds of them being agricultural labourers, and most of the rest artisans or petty tradesmen, they had no desire to enter public life, and were so ignorant and illiterate that their new protectors, on a closer acquaintance, became heartily ashamed of them.
You, peaceful inhabitants of Moscow, artisans and workmen whom misfortune has driven from the city, and you scattered tillers of the soil, still kept out in the fields by groundless fear, listen!
Craftsmen and industrious artisans, return to your work, your houses, your shops, where the protection of guards awaits you!
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.
As artisans they have seldom signalized themselves, save as armourers and clothweavers.
The drawbridge of London Bridge having been lowered by treachery, Tyler and his followers crossed the Thames; and being joined by thousands of London apprentices, artisans and criminals, they sacked and burnt John of Gaunt's splendid palace of the Savoy, the official residence of the treasurer, Sir Robert Hales, and the prisons of Newgate and the Fleet.
Both countries had their artisans, money-lenders, poets and musicians.
Ethnol.) No writings have been recovered, the artisans shaping.
In general the small shop-keepers, small farmers, sailors, poor traders and artisans were arrayed against the patroons, rich fur-traders, merchants, lawyers and crown officers.
When the Sons of Liberty, a society composed largely of unfranchised mechanics and artisans of New York City, which began to dominate the movement immediately after the Congress adjourned, resorted to mob violence - destroying property and burning in effigy the governor and other officers - the propertied classes drew back, and a few years later the popular or patriot party lost its control of the assembly.
Battersea is a district mainly consisting of artisans' houses, and there are several large factories by the river.
The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.
The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
Besides the plunderers, very various people, some drawn by curiosity, some by official duties, some by self-interest--house owners, clergy, officials of all kinds, tradesmen, artisans, and peasants--streamed into Moscow as blood flows to the heart.
In the year 597 (being then, probably, not far from thirty years of age) he was carried off to Babylonia by Nebuchadrezzar with King Jehoiachin and a large body of nobles, military men and artisans, and there, it would seem, he spent the rest of his life.
After the religious services of the morning the Brothers scattered for the day's work, the artisans going to the workshops in the city, - for the idea was to live and work in the world, and not separated from it, like the monks.
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
Other views of the original aerarii are that they were: - artisans and freedmen (Niebuhr); inhabitants of towns united with Rome by a hospitium publicum, who had become domiciled on Roman territory (Lange); only a class of degraded citizens, including neither the cives sine sufJragio nor the artisans (Madvig); identical with the capite censi of the Servian constitution (Belot, Greenidge).
In 1853, Johann Heinrich Dollfus (1800-1887), mayor of the town, founded the "artisans' town" (cite ouvriere) to the north-east of the old town, consisting of about 1 200 model dwellings with public bath-, washand bakehouses, and library.
Of recent years, however, the operatives have moved into the suburbs, leaving the model houses of the "artisans' town" to small tradesmen.
This insurgence of the artisans, in a republic which had been remodelled upon economical principles by Giano della Bellas constitution of 1292, reached a climax in 1378, when the Ciompi rebellion placed the city for a few years in the hands of the Lesser Arts.
It would appear not improbable that the former was the case, for it must be remembered that articles formed of glass were in the later days of Roman civilization in constant daily use, and that the making of glass was carried on, not as now in large establishments, but by artisans working on a small scale.
Speculators either directly employed slaves as artisans or commercial and banking agents, or hired them out, sometimes for work in mines or factories, sometimes for service in private houses, as cooks, flute-players, &c., or for viler uses.
North London is as a whole residential: Hackney, Islington and St Pancras consist mainly of dwellings of artisans and the middle classes; while in Hampstead, St Marylebone and Paddington are many terraces and squares of handsome houses.