All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen to their assessed wealth.
In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
The class of dealers or merchants, as distinguished from trading artisans, also greatly increased and established separate fraternities.
- A craft gild usually comprised all the artisans in a single branch of industry in a particular town.
With the expansion of trade and industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded together for mutual protection.
Even if there had been motives for uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened.
The formation of these societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class of artisans - a conflict between employers, or master artisans, and workmen.
Many find employment as artisans, small dealers, porters and soldiers in Egypt, where they are usually noted for their honesty, and frank and cheerful temperament.
Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste.
Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and domestic servants who came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence of their origin as speedily as possible.
The mestizos of the coast are usually traders, artisans, overseers, petty officers and clerks, and small politicians.
You, peaceful inhabitants of Moscow, artisans and workmen whom misfortune has driven from the city, and you scattered tillers of the soil, still kept out in the fields by groundless fear, listen!
Craftsmen and industrious artisans, return to your work, your houses, your shops, where the protection of guards awaits you!
Inhabitants of the city and villages, and you, workingmen and artisans, to whatever nation you belong, you are called on to carry out the paternal intentions of His Majesty the Emperor and King and to co- operate with him for the public welfare!
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
One of the Polish kings, for example, threatened with death the English sailors who should attempt to carry on the illicit trade in arms, on the ground that " the Muscovite, who is not only our opponent of to-day but the eternal enemy of all free nations, should not be allowed to supply himself with cannons, bullets and munitions or with artisans who manufacture arms hitherto unknown to those barbarians."
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
They were established at a time when industry was not free, and the government fixed the number of artisans of every kind of trade in each town, no one having 'the right to increase that number.
Numbers of English artisans and shipbuilders, Swedish ironfounders, German engineers and French manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry by their example.
The drawbridge of London Bridge having been lowered by treachery, Tyler and his followers crossed the Thames; and being joined by thousands of London apprentices, artisans and criminals, they sacked and burnt John of Gaunt's splendid palace of the Savoy, the official residence of the treasurer, Sir Robert Hales, and the prisons of Newgate and the Fleet.
- The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.
It was customary for the victor after a successful raid to carry off skilled artisans as captives.
In 675 Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass-workers from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed to the bishop of Mainz to send him artisans to manufacture " windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant and helpless."
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
In some towns the victory of the artisans in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic constitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis.
Hence they should not be confused with the old gild merchant, which originally comprised both merchants and artisans, and had the whole monopoly of the trade of the town.
As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the principal hotels.
Two years of incessant labor with relays of artisans working steadily throughout the twenty-four hours were required to finish this piece.
Very soon, however, the artisans of Nagoya (Owari), Yokohama and Tokyowhere the art had been taken upfound that faithful and fine workmanship did not pay.
The dissidents had no political rights, and their religious liberties had also been unjustly restricted; but two-thirds of them being agricultural labourers, and most of the rest artisans or petty tradesmen, they had no desire to enter public life, and were so ignorant and illiterate that their new protectors, on a closer acquaintance, became heartily ashamed of them.
Engineer Mackay the native artisans had learnt to repair arms and use European tools.
Her artists and artisans alike aim at symmetry, not by an equal division of parts, as we do, but rather by a certain balance of corresponding parts, each different from the other, and not numerically even, with an effect of variety and freedom from formality.
Against this blemishwhich is in process of gradual correction the fact has to be set that the better class of merchants, the whole of the artisans and the laboring classes in general, obey canons of probity fully on a level with the best to be found elsewhere.
In the course of time, therefore, the small towns came to be better represented proportionally than the large cities, and the growing class of artisans was entirely disfranchised.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
One of the main questions in dispute is whether artisans were excluded from the gild merchant.
As has already been intimated, however, many artisans probably belonged both to their own craft fraternity and to the gild merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen and their societies.
Except for the statement in Bede that the French artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the 13th century.