"JOHN ROBERT CLYNES (1869-), English politician, was born at Oldham March 27 1869 of working-class parents, and worked himself as an artisan for many years.
His young son Jehoiachin surrendered after a three months' reign, with his mother and the court; they were taken away to Babylonia, together with a number of the artisan class (596).
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.
To many minds the interest and usefulness of economics depend entirely on the application of these methods, for it is the actual working of economic institutions about which the statesman, the publicist, the business man and the artisan wish to know.
Pp. 315 sqq.) - must have weighed heavily upon the artisan class.
As the chief seat of the worship of Ptah, the artisan god (Hephaestus), Memphis must have existed from a very remote time.
The Williamson artisan school is entirely supported by an endowment.
The riformatori were ousted from power and expelled the city, and the trade of Siena suffered no little injury by the exile of so many artisan families.
The difficulties he encountered in producing it were very great, for the foundations had been ill-prepared b3 his predecessors, and he was obliged to be artisan and architect at the same time.
These singers, who, for the most part, belonged to the artisan and trading classes of the German towns, regarded as their masters and the founders of their gild twelve poets of the Middle High German period, among whom were Wolfram von Eschenbach, Konrad von Wurzburg, Reinmar von Zweter and Frauenlob.
Later there came abundant aid to the cause of popular art, partly from pupils of the Kano aiid Tosa schools, but mainly from the artisan class.
These xylographs prove that the Japanese art-artisan of the present day was not surpassed by the greatest of his predecessors in this line.
It was the era of the artisan artist.
It was in connection with architecture that the great artisan movement began.
From this time the temple carvers, although still attached to the carpenters guild, took a place apart from the rest of their craft, and the genius of Hidari Jingoro secured for one important section of the artisan world a recognition like that which Hishigawa Moronobu, the painter and book-illustrator, afterwards won I or another.
The new artisan makers of the okimono struck out a line for themselves, one influenced more by the naturalistic and popular schools than by the classical art, and the quails of Kamejo, the tortoises of Seimin, the dragons of Tun and TOryu, and in recent years the falcons and the peacocks of Suzuki Chokichi, are the joy of the European collector.
The Bizen-yaki familiar to Western collectors is comparatively coarse brown or reddish brown, stoneware, modelled rudely, though sometimes redeemed by touches of the genius never entirely absent from the work of the Japanese artisan-artist.
It seems probable that the Eupatridae were the governing class, the only recognized nobility, the Geomori the country inhabitants of all ranks, and the Demiurgi the commercial and artisan population.
There had consequently grown up within the state a large artisan class, excluded from the old patrician gentes and therefore from the state cult: at the same time the beginnings of commerce had opened relations with neighbouring peoples.
Through the mediation of Falerii, a Latin town on the Etruscan border, was due the introduction of Minerva, who, as the goddess of handicraft and protectress of the artisan gilds, was established in a temple on the Aventine.
The old handicraftsman has been superseded by machine labour and the village artisan by the factory hand.
In London he was not less conspicuous as a temperance worker than he had been in Exeter, and the artisan classes instinctively recognized him as their friend.
The English version, taken from the account by Joseph Livesey in the Staunch Teetotaler, January 1867, is that one Richard Turner, a Preston artisan and popular temperance speaker, declared at a meeting about 1833, that "nothing but tee-teetotal would do."
He surprised the world, which had supposed him to be a recluse and a mystic, by the practical interest he took in the mining population of Durham and in the great shipping and artisan industries of Sunderland and Gateshead.
Its modern growth has been very rapid, the population being in the main of the artisan class.
Superior frugality and industry on the part of the artisan will enable him to pay taxes without mechanically raising the price of labour.
The excavations have provided examples of houses of every description, from the humble dwelling-place of the artisan or proletarian, with only three or four small rooms, to the stately mansions of Sallust, of the Faun, of the Golden Cupids, of the Silver Wedding, of the Vettii, of Pansa, 1 &c. - the last of which is among the most regular in plan, and may be taken as an almost 1 It may be observed that the names given in most cases to the houses are either arbitrary or founded in the first instance upon erroneous inferences.
The quality of .the surface left by the skilled artist or artisan is more regarded than symmetry of design, or even than correct modelling.
The extreme to which he carried his advocacy of diplomatic isolation, his opposition to the creation of an adequate navy, 4 his estimate of cities as "sores upon the body politic," his prejudice against manufactures, trust in farmers, and political distrust of the artisan class, all reflect them.
The upper bourgeois, the aristocracy of his "good cities," were his allies both against the nobles and against the artisan class, whenever they revolted, driven to desperation by the oppressive royal taxes which furnished the money for his wars or diplomacy.
The last-named official soon confined himself to the judicial magisterial office, and a further increase in the numbers of the council having taken place by the appointment of 8 nominees of the king, a municipal council of 34, under the direction of the senior consul or burgomaster, dealt with matters exclusively civic. Later this council (the kleine Rat) was increased to 42 members, 8 of whom belonged to the artisan class.
There are four main classes or crus (literally growths, but more correctly types or qualities), namely, the " grands crus classes " or " classed growths " and the bourgeois, artisan and peasant growths.
Expenditure was unproductive, corruption was rife in the public services, and the poverty of the overtaxed peasant and artisan classes gave rise to sporadic outbreaks of violence.
CARL CHRISTIAN HALL (1812-1888), Danish statesman, son of the highly respected artisan and train-band colonel Mads Hall, was born at Christianshavn on the 25th of February 1812.
It is a poor and crowded district extending east and west of Kingsland Road, and has a large artisan population.
The Yorkshire Ladies' Council of Education has as its object the promotion of female education, and the instruction of girls and women of the artisan class in domestic economy, &c. The general infirmary in Great George Street is a Gothic building of brick with stone dressings with a highly ornamental exterior by Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work this is by no means the only good example in Leeds.