The ulna is curved and rather stout; it articulates with both carpal bones; the cubital quills often cause rugosities on its dorsal surface.
The outer condyle articulates mainly with the fibula.
There are four functional toes in front and three behind; while the calcaneum, unlike that of the other three groups, articulates with the fibula.
In the fore-limb the upper and lower series of carpal bones scarcely alternate, but in the hindfootthe astragalus overlaps the cuboid, while the fibula, which is quite distinct from the tibia(as is the radius from the ulna in the fore-limb), articulates with both astragalus and calcaneum.
The os magnum 1, lunar; sc, scaphoid; u, unciform; of the carpus articulates freely m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, with the scaphoid.
The incisive foramina are large and usually confluent; the bony palate is very narrow from before backwards; there is no alisphenoid canal; the fibula is welded to the tibia, and articulates with the calcaneum; and the testes are permanently external.
The femur has a small third trochanter, the radius and ulna and tibia and fibula are respectively separate, at least in the young, and the fibula articulates with the astragalus.
Munro supplemented this by another character easier of verification, and of even greater constancy, in the articulation of the pedicel in the Paniceae immediately below the glumes; whilst in Poaceae this does not occur, but the axis of the spikelet frequently articulates above the pair of empty basal glumes.
The pisiform is large and prominent, flattened and curved; it articulates partly with the cuneiform and partly with the lower end of the radius.
A difficulty naturally arises with regard to the fact that in reptiles the occipital condyle by which the skull articulates with the vertebral column is single, although composed of three elements, whereas in amphibians and mammals the articulation is formed by a pair of condyles.