The great Arthropod class, the Crustacea, presents to the zoologist at the present day an immense range of forms,.
The principal forms assumed by the Arthropod parapodium and its rami may be thus enumerated: (1) Axial corm well developed, unsegmented or with two to four segments; lateral endites and exites (rami) numerous and of various lengths (certain 8 limbs of lower After Lankester, Q.
(9) The corm becomes the seat of a development of a special visual organ, the Arthropod eye (as opposed to the Chaetopod eye).
On the other hand, we cannot refuse to admit that any of the processes of an Arthropod parapodium may become modified as branchial organs, and that, as a rule, branchial out-growths are easily developed, de novo, in all the higher groups of animals.
The Arthropod eye appears to be an organ of special character developed in the common ancestor of the Euarthropoda, and distinct from the Chaetopod eye, which is found only in the Onychophora where the true Arthropod eye is absent.
The essential difference between these two kinds of eye appears to be that the Chaetopod eye (in its higher developments) is a vesicle enclosing the lens, whereas the Arthropod eye is a pit or series of pits into which the heavy chitinous cuticle dips and enlarges knobwise as a lens.
- Diagram to show the gradual formation of the Arthropod pericardial blood-sinus and "ostiate " heart by the swelling up (phleboedesis) of the veins entering the dorsal vessel or heart of a Chaetopod-like ancestor.
The Arthropod head is a tagma or group of somites which differ in number and in their relative position in regard to the mouth, in different .....
Milne-Edwards and Huxley had satisfied themselves with discussing and establishing, according to the data at their command, the number of somites in the Arthropod head, but had not considered the question of the nature of the prae-oral somites.
Further, the morphologists of the 'fifties appear, with few exceptions, to have accepted a preliminary scheme with regard to the Arthropod head and Arthropod segmentation generally, which was misleading and caused them to adopt forced conclusions and interpretations.
It is not true that all the biting processes of the Arthropod limb are thus produced - for instance, the jaws of Peripatus are formed by the axis or corm itself, whilst the poisonjaws of Chilopods, as also their maxillae, appear to be formed rather by the apex or terminal region of the ramus of the limb; but the opposing jaws (= hemignaths) of Crustacea, Arachnida and Hexapoda are gnathobases, and not the axis or corm.
It differs, however, from all other Arthropoda in such important respects that a special class, equivalent in rank to the old-established Arthropod classes, had been created for its sole occupancy.
Peripatus is an Arthropod, as shown by (1) the presence of appendages modified as jaws; (2) the presence of paired lateral ostia perforating the wall of heart and putting its cavity in communication with the pericardium; (3) the presence of a vascular body cavity and pericardium (haemocoelic body cavity); (4) absence of a Derivisceral section of the coelom.
Peripatus, though indubitably an Arthropod, differs in such important respects from all the old-established Arthropod classes, that a special class, equivalent in rank to the others, and called Prototracheata or Onychophora, has had, as we have seen, to be created for its sole occupancy.
The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.
A common modification of the chief ramus of the Arthropod parapodium is the chela or nipper formed by the elongation of the penultimate joint of the ramus, so that the last joint works on it FIG.
Two distinct forms of the Arthropod eye are observed - the monomeniscous (simple) and the polymeniscous (compound).
Supposing a number of some species of arthropod or fish to be swept into a cavern or to be carried from less to greater depths in the sea, those individuals with perfect eyes would follow the glimmer of light and eventually escape to the outer air or the shallower depths, leaving behind those with imperfect eyes to breed in the dark place.
On either view it may be believed that the Hexapoda arose with the allied classes from a primitive arthropod stock, while the relationships of the class are with the Crustacea, the Chilopoda and the Diplopoda, rather than with the Arachnida.